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A surface complexation and ion exchange model of Pb and Cd competititve sorption on natural soils

AutorSerrano, Susana; O´Day, Peggy A.; Vlassopoulos, Dimitri; García-González, M.T. ; Garrido, Fernando
Palabras claveIon
Natural soils
Fecha de publicación2009
CitaciónGeochimica et Cosmochímica Acta 73: 543-558 (2009)
ResumenThe bioavailability and fate of heavy metals in the environment are often controlled by sorption reactions on the reactive surfaces of soil minerals. We have developed a non-electrostatic equilibrium model (NEM) with both surface complexation and ion exchange reactions to describe the sorption of Pb and Cd in single- and binary-metal systems over a range of pH and metal concentration. Mineralogical and exchange properties of three different acidic soils were used to constrain surface reactions in the model and to estimate surface densities for sorption sites, rather than treating them as adjustable parameters. Soil heterogeneity was modeled with >FeOH and >SOH functional groups, representing Fe- and Al-oxyhydroxide minerals and phyllosilicate clay mineral edge sites, and two ion exchange sites (X and Y ), representing clay mineral exchange. An optimization process was carried out using the entire experimental sorption data set to determine the binding constants for Pb and Cd surface complexation and ion exchange reactions. Modeling results showed that the adsorption of Pb and Cd was distributed between ion exchange sites at low pH values and specific adsorption sites at higher pH values, mainly associated with >FeOH sites. Modeling results confirmed the greater tendency of Cd to be retained on exchange sites compared to Pb, which had a higher affinity than Cd for specific adsorption on >FeOH sites. Lead retention on >FeOH occurred at lower pH than for Cd, suggesting that Pb sorbs to surface hydroxyl groups at pH values at which Cd interacts only with exchange sites. The results from the binary system (both Pb and Cd present) showed that Cd retained in >FeOH sites decreased significantly in the presence of Pb, while the occupancy of Pb in these sites did not change in the presence of Cd. As a consequence of this competition, Cd was shifted to ion exchange sites, where it competes with Pb and possibly Ca (from the background electrolyte). Sorption on >SOH functional groups increased with increasing pH but was small compared to >FeOH sites, with little difference between single- and binary-metal systems. Model reactions and conditional sorption constants for Pb and Cd sorption were tested on a fourth soil that was not used for model optimization. The same reactions and constants were used successfully without adjustment by estimating surface site concentrations from soil mineralogy. The model formulation developed in this study is applicable to acidic mineral soils with low organic matter content. Extension of the model to soils of different composition may require selection of surface reactions that account for differences in clay and oxide mineral composition and organic matter content.
Descripción16 pages, figures, and tables statistics.
Versión del editorhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gca.2008.11.018
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