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Significance of the long-chain organic cation structure in the sorption of the penconazole and metalaxyl fungicides by organo clays

AuthorsRodríguez Cruz, M. Sonia CSIC ORCID ; Andrades, M. Soledad CSIC ORCID; Sánchez Martín, M. Jesús CSIC ORCID
KeywordsLong-chain cationic surfactant
Clay mineral
Organo clay
Issue DateFeb-2008
CitationJournal of Hazardous Materials 160 (2008) 200–207
AbstractSorption-desorption of two different hydrophobic fungicides, penconazole and metalaxyl, by a series of clay minerals layered and non-layered (montmorillonite, illite, kaolinite, muscovite, sepiolite and palygorskite) modified with the two-chain cationic surfactant, dihexadecyldimetylammonium (DHDDMA) was studied by first time in this work. DHDDMA-clays showed a good capacity to sorb both fungicides from water. Freundlich sorption constants (Kf) increased 22-268-fold for penconazole and 4-112-fold for metalaxyl in relation to natural clays. High sorption irreversibility was observed for penconazole for all modified clays, while for metalaxyl this occurred only for some of the modified clays. Additionally, a comparative study of the sorption of the fungicides by clay minerals modified with organic cations of different structure was carried out by a statistical approach. Non layered and layered clay minerals modified with the two-chain alkylammonium organic cation DHDDMA, and with single-chain organic cations octadecyltrimethylammonium (ODTMA) and hexadecylpyridinium (HDPY) were used as sorbents. The study indicated a significant linear regression between the distribution coefficients Kd of fungicides and the organic carbon (OC) content of the organo clays (r2≥ 0.80, p<0.001). According to this sorption of fungicides by partition between the aqueous solution and the organic medium created by the alkyl chains of the exchanged ammonium cations regardless of the type and structure of these cations is suggested. However, linear relationships between Kd values of each pesticide by the different organo clays and their relative OC contents revealed higher increase in sorption for HDPY-clays (penconazole) and for ODTMA-clays (metalaxyl) pointing out different effectiveness of the OC provided by each organic cation. These effects were also supported by the values of Kd relative to OC, Kdoc. The results evidenced the different relative weight of alkyl cations to make organo clays effective barriers to prevent the mobility of pesticides from a point source of pollution.
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