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Relación estructura/actividad de proantocianidinas procedentes de fuentes naturales de origen vegetal

AutorMateos-Martín, María Luisa
DirectorTorres, Josep Lluís; Fuguet, Elisabet
Fecha de publicación2013
EditorCSIC - Instituto de Química Avanzada de Cataluña (IQAC)
Universidad de Barcelona
ResumenThe positive health effects associated with the consumption of vegetables could in part be attributed to its phenolic composition. These polyphenols can be found in a high proportion as polymers in plants; however, most studies have focused on the composition and activity of monomeric compounds. Proanthocyanidins (PA), despite being the most abundant polyphenolic compounds in the diet, have been paid little attention in the studies on the composition and functional properties of food. The reasons for this are: they are hard to separate from the matrix and hard to analyze. Most of the studies on proanthocyanidins, including those that address their metabolism, have been made only considering the extractable fraction (EPA) when most of the PA in nature are non-extractable (NEPA). This thesis deals with the characterization of polymeric proanthocyanidins from cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum L.), grape (Vitis vinifera) and Chamaecrista nictitans as well as with their metabilization and bioaccessibility (cinnamon and grape) and antiviral activity (Chamaecrista). Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) techniques, particularly MALDI-TOF/TOF, and HPLC¿ESI¿MS/MS are used. This thesis presents the first report of cinnamon proanthocyanidins determined by MALDI-TOF/TOF. MALDI-TOF/TOF in CID mode is a powerful technique for the structural analysis of polyphenolic polymers. Cinnamon proanthocyanidins contain substructures never described before for this source ((epi)catechingallate and (epi)gallocatechin units) that may explain some of the properties of cinnamon extracts. Cinnamon bark PA include combinations of (epi)catechin, (epi)catechingallate, (epi)gallocatechin, and (epi)afzelechin, resulting in a highly heterogeneous mixture of procyanidins, prodelphinidins, and propelargonidins. Cinnamon proanthocyanidins are bioaccessible and bioavailable as (epi)catechin metabolites and microbial-derived metabolites after ingestion of whole bark powder by rats, as proven by their detection in urine and feces. The results with grape antioxidant dietary fibre (GADF) prove that NEPA are a source of polymeric proanthocyanidins that are progressively depolymerised during their transit along the intestinal tract into EC monomers and dimers, and later metabolised by the intestinal microbiota into smaller units. As a result, EC, phenolic acids and their phase II metabolites are in contact with the intestinal tract and bioavailable for at least 24 h after ingestion. Antiviral properties have been attributed before to plant polyphenolic extracts but no clear structure/activity relationships have been established. The antiviral effect has been related to the free radical scavenging activity usually called antioxidant. This thesis proves that Chamaecrista nictitans extracts contain proanthocyanidins with two structural features, namely monohydroxyphenols and type-A linkages that may be responsible for their antiviral activity. Particularly, a fraction rich in (epi)fisetinidol and (epi)afzelechin oligomers shows potential as preventive agent against herpes simplex virus.
DescripciónMemoria presentada para optar al título de Doctora por la Universidad de Barcelona en 2013.
Aparece en las colecciones: (IQAC) Tesis
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