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Carbohydrate-aromatic interactions

AuthorsAsensio, Juan Luis ; Ardá, Ana ; Cañada, F. Javier ; Jiménez-Barbero, Jesús
Issue Date15-Jun-2012
PublisherAmerican Chemical Society
CitationAccounts of Chemical Research, 2013, 46 ( 4) 946–954
AbstractT he recognition of saccharides by proteins has far reaching implications in biology, technology, and drug design. Within the past two decades,researchers have directed considerable effort toward a detailed understanding of these processes.Early crystallographic studies revealed, not surprisingly,that hydrogen-bonding interactions are usually involved in carbohydrate recognition. But less expectedly, researchers observed that despite the highly hydrophilic character of most sugars,aromatic rings of the receptor often play an important role in carbohydrate recognition.With further research, scientists now accept that noncovalent interactions mediated by aromatic rings are pivotal to sugar binding. For example, aromatic residues often stack against the faces of sugar pyranose rings in complexes between proteins and carbohydrates. Such contacts typically involve two or three CH groups of the pyranoses and the π electron density of the aromatic ring (called CH/π bonds), and these interactions can exhibit a variety of geometries, with either parallel or nonparallel arrangements of the aromatic and sugar units.In this Account, we provide an overview of the structural and thermodynamic features of protein carbohydrate interactions,theoretical and experimental efforts to understand stacking in these complexes, and the implications of this understanding for chemical biology. The interaction energy between different aromatic rings and simple monosaccharides based on quantum mechanical calculations in the gas phase ranges from 3 to 6 kcal/mol range. Experimental values measured in water are somewhat smaller, approximately 1.5 kcal/mol for each interaction between a monosaccharide and an aromatic ring. This difference illustrates the dependence of these intermolecular interactions on their context and shows that this stacking can be modulated by entropic and solvent effects. Despite their relatively modest influence on the stability of carbohydrate/protein complexes, the aromatic platforms play a major role in determining the specificity of the molecular recognition process.The recognition of carbohydrate/aromatic interactions has prompted further analysis of the properties that influence them. Using a variety of experimental and theoretical methods, researchers have worked to quantify carbohydrate/aromatic stacking and identify the features that stabilize these complexes. Researchers have used site-directed mutagenesis, organic synthesis, or both to incorporate modifications in the receptor or ligand and then quantitatively analyzed the structural and thermodynamic features of these interactions. Researchers have also synthesized and characterized artificial receptors and simple model systems, employing a reductionistic chemistry-based strategy. Finally,using quantum mechanics calculations, researchers have examined the magnitude of each property's contribution to the interaction energy.
Description25 p.-4 fig.
Publisher version (URL)http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ar300024d
Appears in Collections:(CIB) Artículos
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