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Title

Influences of food availability and predation on survival of kittiwakes

AuthorsOro, Daniel ; Furness, Robert W.
KeywordsSandeel
SURGE
Rissa tridactyla
Predation
Life history
Ammodytes marinus
Black-legged Kittiwake
Body condition
Catharacta skua
Cost of reproduction
Food availability
Great Skua
Issue Date2002
PublisherEcological Society of America
CitationEcology 83(9): 2516-2528 (2002)
AbstractLife history theory predicts a trade-off between current reproduction and survival to maximize fitness. In long-lived seabirds, one might expect adults not to jeopardize survival by excessive reproductive investment when environmental conditions for breeding are adverse. Some environmental factors have reduced the fecundity of Black-legged Kittiwakes (Rissa tridacryla) breeding in Shetland, UK, a metapopulation that has declined substantially during the last two decades. Two hypotheses are proposed to explain this decrease: (1) reduced availability of sandeels (the main prey for kittiwakes), which has occurred since the late 1980s; and (2) increased predation by Great Skuas (Catharacta skua), the main predator of kittiwakes. Detailed data on food supply (sandeel stock size, by age groups), kittiwake body condition and breeding success, and diet and productivity of Great Skuas allowed us to assess the influence of each of these factors on adult kittiwake survival from 1986 through 1997. Capture-recapture models were constructed to examine correlations between local adult survival rate and environmental parameters. Body condition at the end of the breeding season and availability of 0-group (juveniles ≤ 1 yr old) sandeels positively influenced adult survival, whereas survival was lower when Great Skua productivity was high. Adult survival varied greatly during the study, from 0.53 ± 0.04 to 0.98 ± 0.01 (mean ± 1 SD), and was independent of sex. Both hypotheses were supported. Contrary to predictions of life history theory, kittiwakes did not refrain from breeding in years of poor food supply or high predator activity to buffer their survival at the cost of not rearing chicks. Although 0-group sandeel availability affected breeding success of kittiwakes, its influence on adult survival was also significant. The discovery that food supply affects adult survival rate has important implications for fisheries management to minimize impacts on seabirds.
Publisher version (URL)http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3071811
URIhttp://hdl.handle.net/10261/99085
DOI10.2307/3071811
Identifiersdoi: 10.2307/3071811
issn: 0012-9658
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