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Visualització sísmica mitjançant tècniques tomogràfiques.

AutorFlecha, I.
DirectorCarbonell, Ramón
Palabras claveTomografíia sísmica
Tomografia sísmica
Seismic tomography
Fecha de publicación20-dic-2012
ResumenThe internal structure of the subsoil has been a topic of major interest for several reasons. The availability of natural resources (water, oil, minerals..), seismicity or volcanism condition the use of the soil, therefore knowing its properties is mandatory. Synthetic simulations and forward modelling have been intensively used in the present work to compare tomographic softwares, to test a new pre-stack depth migration code and to test several acquisition geometries. Synthetic data provide a fast (and cheap) way to study many hypothetical situations and experimental conditions and to predict results. Seismic tomography is an indirect and non-destructive prospection technique that can be used in many studies. By means of this methodology, velocities that feature materials of the study area can be obtained. In most of cases, this parameter (velocity) can be correlated with the subsurface composition. Furthermore, velocity models obtained are very useful for the application of other seismic reflection techniques such as static corrections or depth migrations. In this work, seismic tomography has been used for a wide range of situations. Theoretical considerations (Snell’s law) suggest that low-velocity anomalies are under-sampled while high-velocity zones were well resolved using this methodology. For the optimal case (positive anomalies), seismic tomography has been successful in detecting granitic plutons and basalt layers because of the contrast of acoustic properties between these bodies and the sorrounding rocks. The performance of seismic tomography has been tested in less favourable situations such as the presence of subterranean cavities (extreme low-velocity anomalies), fracturation zones or subbasalt sediments. In some of these cases, tomographic models are not conclusive and require the use of other methodologies in order to solve the problem. Despite these limitations, seismic tomography can be considered as a robust technique to obtain velocity models in different geological contexts and at different scales
Versión del editorhttp://hdl.handle.net/2445/34936
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