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Formation of metal-nicotianamine complexes as affected by pH, ligand exchange with citrate and metal exchange. A study by electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry

AutorRellán-Álvarez, Rubén ; Abadía Bayona, Javier ; Álvarez-Fernández, Ana
Palabras claveMetals
Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization
Azetidinecarboxylic Acid
Electrospray Ionization
Citric Acid
Fecha de publicación2008
EditorJohn Wiley & Sons
CitaciónRapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry 22 (10): 1553-1562 (2008)
ResumenNicotianamine (NA) is considered as a key element in plant metal homeostasis. This non-proteinogenic amino acid has an optimal structure for chelation of metal ions, with six functional groups that allow octahedral coordination. The ability to chelate metals by NA is largely dependent on the pK of the resulting complex and the pH of the solution, with most metals being chelated at neutral or basic pH values. In silico calculations using pKa and pK values have predicted the occurrence of metal-NA complexes in plant fluids, but the use of soft ionization techniques (e.g. electrospray), together with high-resolution mass spectrometers (e.g. time-of-flight mass detector), can offer direct and metal-specific information on the speciation of NA in solution. We have used direct infusion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (time-of-flight) ESI-MS(TOF) to study the complexation of Mn, Fe(II), Fe(III), Ni, Cu by NA. The pH dependence of the metal-NA complexes in ESI-MS was compared to that predicted in silico. Possible exchange reactions that may occur between Fe-NA and other metal micronutrients as Zn and Cu, as well as between Fe-NA and citrate, another possible Fe ligand candidate in plants, were studied at pH 5.5 and 7.5, values typical of the plant xylem and phloem saps. Metal-NA complexes were generally observed in the ESI-MS experiments at a pH value approximately 1-2 units lower than that predicted in silico, and this difference could be only partially explained by the estimated error, approximately 0.3 pH units, associated with measuring pH in organic solvent-containing solutions. Iron-NA complexes are less likely to participate in ligand- and metal-exchange reactions at pH 7.5 than at pH 5.5. Results support that NA may be the ligand chelating Fe at pH values usually found in phloem sap, whereas in the xylem sap NA is not likely to be involved in Fe transport, conversely to what occurs with other metals such as Cu and Ni. Some considerations that need to be addressed when studying metal complexes in plant compartments by ESI-MS are also discussed. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Versión del editorhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1002/rcm.3523
Identificadoresdoi: 10.1002/rcm.3523
issn: 0951-4198
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