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Chloroplast redox homeostasis is essential for lateral root formation in Arabidopsis

AuthorsFerrández, Julia; González, Maricruz ; Cejudo, Francisco Javier
Lateral root
Redox regulation
Thioredoxin reductase
Issue Date2012
PublisherLandes Bioscience
CitationPlant Signaling and Behavior 7: 1177- 1179 (2012)
AbstractRedox regulation based on dithiol-disulphide interchange is an essential component of the control of chloroplast metabolism. In contrast to heterotrophic organisms, and non-photosynthetic plant tissues, chloroplast redox regulation relies on ferredoxin (Fd) reduced by the photosynthetic electron transport chain, thus being highly dependent on light. The finding of the NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase C (NTRC), a chloroplast-localized NTR with a joint thioredoxin domain, showed that NADPH is also used as source of reducing power for chloroplast redox homeostasis. Recently we have found that NTRC is also in plastids of non-photosynthetic tissues. Because these non-green plastids lack photochemical reactions, their redox homeostasis depends exclusively on NADPH produced from sugars and, thus, NTRC may play an essential role maintaining the redox homeostasis in these plastids. The fact that redox regulation occurs in any type of plastids raises the possibility that the functions of chloroplasts and non-green plastids, such as amyloplasts, are integrated to harmonize the growth of the different organs of the plant. To address this question, we generated Arabidopsis plants the redox homeostasis of which is recovered exclusively in chloroplasts, by leaf-specific expression of NTRC in the ntrc mutant, or exclusively in amyloplasts, by root-specific expression of NTRC. The analysis of these plants suggests that chloroplasts exert a pivotal role on plant growth, as expected because chloroplasts constitute the major source of nutrients and energy, derived from photosynthesis, for growth of heterotrophic tissues. However, NTRC deficiency causes impairment of auxin synthesis and lateral root formation. Interestingly, recovery of redox homeostasis of chloroplasts, but not of amyloplasts, was sufficient to restore wild type levels of lateral roots, showing the important signalling function of chloroplasts for the development of heterotrophic organs.
Publisher version (URL)http://dx.doi.org/10.4161/psb.21001
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