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Spatial distribution of pharmaceuticals between water, soils and sediments in the wetland ecosystem of the Xuquer river basin (Valencia, Spain)

AutorVázquez-Roig, Pablo; Blasco, Cristina; Andreu Pérez, V. ; Picó, Yolanda
Fecha de publicaciónmay-2010
EditorSETAC (Society)
Citación20th Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry Europe Annual Meeting (2010)
ResumenContaminants resulting of the human pressure, such as pharmaceuticals, personal care products or drugs of abuse, are an emerging problem that should be tackled to meet the Water Framework Directive. The Valencian Community is a study case where the scarcity of this resource put in danger its quality. An insufficient water volume makes the dilution and drainage of the contaminants difficult. This circumstance is particularly critical in the quiet films of water, lagoons and marshes that cover the Valencian littoral. In the present work, the spatial distribution of pharmaceuticals between water, soil and sediment in water courses and channels of L'Albulera Nalural Park has been studied. This park is the most important wetland ecosystem of the Xuquer River Basin (Valencia, Spain). Analyzed pharmaceuticals were acetaminophen, codeine, carbamazepine, ciprolloxacin, clofibric acid, diazepam, diclolenac, lenolibrate, ibuprolen, meloprolol, norfloxacin, olloxacin, oxytelracycline, sullamethoxazol, tetracycline, propanolol, trimethoprim, 4-epitetracycline and 4-epioxytetracycline. In April 2009 and October 2009 water, sediment and soil samples were collected at 16 different locations covering the most important channels that flow into the L'Albulera Lake within the Natural Park. Soil and sediment samples were extracted by pressure liquid extraction (PLE). The analytes from aqueous extract were isolated by solid-phase extraction (SPE). Water samples were extracted using only the SPE procedure. Analysis was performed by LC-MS/MS. All analyzed pharmaceuticals were detected, in at least one sample, at concentrations from MDL to 13.2 ng g-1 in soils and sediments, and from MDL to 7.3 µg/L in surface waters. The presence of pharmaceuticals in soils (5 contaminated samples) was more sporadic than in water (100 % of samples contain pharmaceuticals) or sediment (90 % of the samples), probably because they are not in permanent contact with water. Concentrations in water samples are higher than in sediment samples, excepting ibuprofen and ofloxacin that seems to accumulate in sediments. There is a positive correlation between samples of water, soil and sediment, so that the sampling point with more contaminated soil presents also the most contaminated water and sediment. Higher levels and frequency of pharmaceuticals appears in the north area of the lagoon, which is justified by a larger concentration of population. However, the most contaminated sampling point was located in the southwest of the lagoon, in the middle of an agricultural area but surrounded by several leisure areas. The simultaneous determination of 17 pharmaceuticals by SPE in the case of water samples and PLE and SPE lor soils and sediments and LC-MS/MS afforded high sensitivity (MQLs in the low ng g-1) and achieves unequivocal identification of these compounds. The results from the screening of water, soil and sediment of several locations within the L'Albulera Natural Park are of concern because they show a ubiquitous contamination of this Natural Protected Area.
DescripciónPonencia presentada en el 20th Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry Europe Annual Meeting celebrado en Sevilla del 23 al 27 mayo de 2010
Aparece en las colecciones: (CIDE) Comunicaciones congresos
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