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Determination of electronic and atomic properties of surface, bulk and buried interfaces: Simultaneous combination of hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction

AuthorsRubio-Zuazo, J. ; Castro, Germán R.
KeywordsSurface and bulk X-ray diffraction
Electronic and compositional depth profiles
La–Ca mixed-valence manganites
Issue Date2013
CitationJournal of Electron Spectroscopy and Related Phenomena 190B: 205-209 (2013)
AbstractHard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) is a powerful novel emerging technique for bulk compositional, chemical and electronic properties determination in a non-destructive way. It benefits from the exceptionally large escape depth of high kinetic energy photoelectrons enabling the study of bulk and buried interfaces up to several tens of nanometres depth. Its advantage over conventional XPS is based on the long mean free path of high kinetic energetic photoelectrons. Using the advantage of tuneable X-ray radiation provided by synchrotron sources the photoelectron kinetic energy, i.e. the information depth can be changed and consequently electronic and compositional depth profiles can be obtained. The combination of HAXPES with an atomic structure sensitive technique, as X-ray diffraction, opens a new research field with great potential for many systems in which their electronic properties are intimately linked to their crystallographic structure. At SpLine, the Spanish CRG Beamline at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) we have developed a novel and exceptional set-up that combine grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) and HAXPES. Both techniques can be operated simultaneously on the same sample and using the same excitation source. The set-up includes a heavy 2S+3D diffractometer and UHV chamber equipped with an electrostatic analyzer. The UHV chamber has also MBE evaporation sources, an ion gun, a LEED optic, a sample heating and cooling device, an electron gun, a UV discharge lamp, a low and medium energy X-ray tube, leak valves and a load-lock port. The photon energy ranges between 7 and 45 keV. The HAXPES analyzer is an electrostatic cylinder-sector (FOCUS HV CSA), with a compact geometry and high transmission due to second order focusing. The analyzer is capable to handle kinetic energies both up to 15 keV and down to a few eV with the same analyzer setup and power supply. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Identifiersdoi: 10.1016/j.elspec.2013.04.003
issn: 0368-2048
e-issn: 1873-2526
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