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The diversity of dinoflagellates belonging to the gymnodiniales from the Catalan Coast (NW Mediterranean Sea)

AutorReñé, Albert
DirectorCamp, Jordi ; Garcés, Esther
Fecha de publicaciónene-2014
EditorUniversidad Politécnica de Cataluña
CSIC - Instituto de Ciencias del Mar (ICM)
ResumenDinoflagellates are one of the most abundant and diverse groups of microalgae. Many dinoflagellates are covered with cellulose plates, whereas others lack these plates and are hence referred to as athecate or unarmoured. Unarmoured species have been historically poorly characterized because they deform when fixed with traditional methods. Most unarmoured genera are included within the order Gymnodiniales and are differentiated by morphological characters, but the recent combination of morphological observations with phylogenetic data concludes that molecular phylogenies do not support the "classical" morphological criteria used to distinguish the genera. It is also known that the order Gymnodiniales is not monophyletic. Consequently, the taxonomy of dinoflagellates has shifted to a combination of morphology and molecular information. The widespread use of molecular techniques has enabled detailed studies on the systematics of a lot of groups. Although many dinoflagellates are not easily cultivable and cannot be sequenced by standard techniques, the single-cell PCR technique has allowed obtaining sequences from a single cell by taking advantage of the large copy number of the ribosomal genes. Extensive identifications of dinoflagellates present in the NW Mediterranean Sea were carried out between the 1960s and 1980s. However, the diversity of unarmoured dinoflagellates was not suitably characterized because of the use of fixed samples and the lack of molecular tools. This thesis studies the diversity of dinoflagellates belonging to the Gymnodiniales order from the Catalan coast, as a representative site of the NW Mediterranean Sea. This thesis presents a revision of their taxonomy by combining morphological studies of live specimens with the respective phylogenetic information. Given that the phylogeny of most of the studied organisms had not been previously determined and the evidence that Gymnodiniales is not monophyletic, a secondary objective was to study the phylogenetic relationships of species. The D1-D2 region of the LSU rDNA sequence was selected to conduct the SC-PCR, but SSU rDNA sequences were obtained when necessary. The combination of morphological and molecular data has led to the identification of 56 unarmoured species belonging to the order Gymnodiniales. Ten morphospecies are detected for the first time in the Mediterranean Sea, and seven, for the first time along the Catalan coast (Chapter 1 and 2). Additionally, the application of single-cell PCR has resulted in the sequencing of 43 unarmoured species, 25 of them for the first time (Chapters 1 and 2). It has also allowed the detection and characterization of species previously undescribed, resulting in the erection of two new species: Gymnodinium litoralis (Chapter 3) and Polykrikos tanit (Chapter 4). Additionally, the toxic species Cochlodinium polykrikoides was detected for the first time along the Catalan coast. Most populations formed a newly differentiated ribotype, but others were included within a previously known one, demonstrating their coexistence in the Mediterranean Sea (Chapter 5). Finally, a Ceratoperidinium specimen was sequenced for the first time and a new phylogenetic clade was obtained, along with other unarmoured dinoflagellates, including Ceratoperidinium margalefii, Gyrodinium falcatum, which was transferredto the genus Ceratoperidinium, three Cochlodinium species, and two Gymnodinium-like organisms. This resulted in the emendation of the Ceratoperidiniaceae family and the genus Ceratoperidinum (Chapter 6). The correct identification of the species has allowed to conclude that there is a high diversity of unarmoured dinoflagellates in the Catalan coast, and to discuss the implications on the distribution and biogeography of the species at a Mediterranean level, as C. polykrikoides (Chapter 5), or globally, as for Gyrodinium spirale (Chapter 2)
Descripción160 pages.-- Memoria de tesis doctoral presentada por Albert Reñé i Vicente para optar al grado de Doctor en Ciencias del Mar en el Departament d'Enginyeria Hidràulica, Marítima i Ambiental de la Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC), realizada bajo la dirección del Dr. Jordi Camp i Sancho y la Dra. Esther Garcés i Pieres del Institut de Ciències del Mar (ICM-CSIC)
URIhttp://hdl.handle.net/10261/93789
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