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dc.contributor.authorMerino, Santiago-
dc.contributor.authorBenzal, Jesús-
dc.contributor.authorBarbosa, Andrés-
dc.contributor.authorMartínez, Javier-
dc.contributor.authorGarcía-Fraile, J.-
dc.date.accessioned2008-11-27T13:11:45Z-
dc.date.available2008-11-27T13:11:45Z-
dc.date.issued2007-
dc.identifier.citationPolar Biology, 30: 219-225en_US
dc.identifier.issn0722-4060-
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10261/8859-
dc.description.abstractAntarctic organisms, including penguins, are susceptible to parasites and pathogens. Effects of infestation could differ in different locations along a geographical gradient from north to south consistent with conditions that affect the prevalence and virulence of parasites and pathogens. The immune system, including immunoglobulins as the main component of the humoral immune response, is the major way by which organisms confront infestation. We investigated the variation in immunoglobulin levels in three species of antarctic penguins (Pygoscelis antarctica, Pygoscelis papua, and Pygoscelis adeliae) along a geographical gradient from King George Island (62°15′S) to Avian Island (67°46′S). We found that immunoglobulin levels increased northwards in all the three species. This could indicate a higher impact of parasites and/or pathogens relative to the existing gradient in temperatures along this coast. Changing temperatures, consistent with global climate change, could be altering the ecology of parasite or pathogen infestation within the biota of northern Antarctica. We have also found marginal differences in immunoglobulin levels between sexes in both chinstrap and gentoo penguins.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipThis study has been funded by the Accio´ n Especial project REN2001-5004/ANT of the Spanish Ministry of Education and Science. The project CGL2004-01348/ANT supported AB while the paper was written.en_US
dc.format.extent24576 bytes-
dc.format.mimetypeapplication/msword-
dc.language.isoengen_US
dc.publisherSpringeren_US
dc.rightsclosedAccessen_US
dc.subjectPenguinsen_US
dc.subjectImmunoglobulinen_US
dc.titleGeographic variation in the immunoglobulin levels in pygoscelid penguinsen_US
dc.typeArtículoen_US
dc.identifier.doi10.1007/s00300-006-0175-9-
dc.description.peerreviewedPeer revieweden_US
dc.relation.publisherversionhttp://www.springerlink.com/content/34k0485435t8673x/fulltext.pdfen_US
dc.identifier.e-issn1432-2056-
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