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Molecular basis of the extreme dilution mottled mouse mutation: A combination of coding and non-coding genomic alterations

AutorLavado, Alfonso J.; Olivares, Concepción; García-Borrón, José Carlos; Montoliu, Lluís
Fecha de publicación30-nov-2004
EditorAmerican Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
CitaciónJ. Biol. Chem. 280(6): 4817-4824 (2005)
ResumenTyrosinase is the rate-limiting enzyme in melanin biosynthesis. It is an N-glycosylated, copper-containing transmembrane protein, whose post-translational processing involves intracytoplasmic movement from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi and, eventually, to the melanosome. The expression of the tyrosinase (Tyr) gene is controlled by several regulatory regions including a locus control region (LCR) located 15 kb upstream from the promoter region. The extreme dilution mottled mutant mice (Tyr^c-em) arose spontaneously at the MRC Institute in Harwell (United Kingdom) from a chinchilla-mottled mutant (Tyr^c-m) stock, whose molecular basis corresponds to a rearrangement of 5'-upstream regulatory sequences including the LCR of the Tyr gene. Tyr^c-em mice display a variegated pigmentation pattern in coat and eyes, in agreement with the LCR translocation, but also show a generalized hypopigmented phenotype, not seen in Tyr^c-m mice. Genomic analyses of Tyr^c-em mice showed a C1220T nucleotide substitution within the Tyr encoding region, resulting in a T373I amino acid change, which abolishes an N-glycosylation sequon located in the second metal ion binding site of the enzyme. Tyrosinase from Tyr^c-em displayed a reduced enzymatic activity in vivo and in vitro, compared with wild-type enzyme. Deglycosylation studies showed that the mutant protein has an abnormal glycosylation pattern and is partially retained in the endoplasmic reticulum. We conclude that the phenotype of the extreme dilution mottled mouse mutant is caused by a combination of coding and noncoding genomic alterations resulting in several abnormalities that include suboptimal gene expression, abnormal protein processing, and reduced enzymatic activity.
Descripción8 pages, 4 figures.-- PMID: 15572362 [PubMed].-- The nucleotide sequence(s) reported in this paper has been submitted to the GenBank/EBI Data Bank with accession number(s) AY526904.-- Open Access version available at the publisher's site.
Versión del editorhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M410399200
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