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Beam Steering with Segmented Annular Arrays

AuthorsUllate, Luis G.; Godoy, Gregorio; Martínez-Graullera, Óscar ; Sánchez Martín, Teresa
Keywordsultrasonic imaging
2D arrays
volumetric imaging
Issue DateOct-2006
PublisherInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
AbstractTwo-dimensional (2-D) arrays of squared matrix have maximum periodicity in their main directions; consequently, they require half wavelength (λ/2), interelement spacing to avoid grating lobes. This condition gives rise to well-known problems derived from the huge number of array elements and from their small size. In contrast, 2-D arrays with curvilinear configuration produce lower grating lobes and, therefore, allow the element size to be increased beyond λ/2. Using larger elements, these arrays have the advantage of reducing the number of elements and of increasing the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). In this paper, the beamforming properties of segmented annular phased arrays are theoretically analyzed and compared with the equivalent squared matrix array. In the first part, point-like elements are considered in order to facilitate the field analysis with respect to the array structure. Afterward, the effect of the element size on the steered beam properties also is presented. In the examples, it is shown that the segmented annular array has notably lower grating lobes than the equivalent squared matrix array and that it is possible to design segmented annular arrays with interelement distance higher than λ whose beam characteristics are perfectly valid for volumetric imaging applications.
Publisher version (URL)http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/freeabs_all.jsp?arnumber=4012879
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