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Title

Evolution of conjugation and type IV secretion systems

AuthorsGuglielmini, Julien; Cruz, Fernando de la ; Rocha, Eduardo P. C.
KeywordsBacterial conjugation
Horizontal gene transfer
Type IV protein secretion
Issue Date2013
PublisherOxford University Press
CitationMolecular Biology and Evolution 30(2): 315-331 (2013)
AbstractGenetic exchange by conjugation is responsible for the spread of resistance, virulence, and social traits among prokaryotes. Recent works unraveled the functioning of the underlying type IV secretion systems (T4SS) and its distribution and recruitment for other biological processes (exaptation), notably pathogenesis. We analyzed the phylogeny of key conjugation proteins to infer the evolutionary history of conjugation and T4SS. We show that single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) conjugation, while both based on a key AAA+ ATPase, diverged before the last common ancestor of bacteria. The two key ATPases of ssDNA conjugation are monophyletic, having diverged at an early stage from dsDNA translocases. Our data suggest that ssDNA conjugation arose first in diderm bacteria, possibly Proteobacteria, and then spread to other bacterial phyla, including bacterial monoderms and Archaea. Identifiable T4SS fall within the eight monophyletic groups, determined by both taxonomy and structure of the cell envelope. Transfer to monoderms might have occurred only once, but followed diverse adaptive paths. Remarkably, some Firmicutes developed a new conjugation system based on an atypical relaxase and an ATPase derived from a dsDNA translocase. The observed evolutionary rates and patterns of presence/absence of specific T4SS proteins show that conjugation systems are often and independently exapted for other functions. This work brings a natural basis for the classification of all kinds of conjugative systems, thus tackling a problem that is growing as fast as genomic databases. Our analysis provides the first global picture of the evolution of conjugation and shows how a self-transferrable complex multiprotein system has adapted to different taxa and often been recruited by the host. As conjugation systems became specific to certain clades and cell envelopes, they may have biased the rate and direction of gene transfer by conjugation within prokaryotes.
DescriptionThis is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License.
Publisher version (URL)http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/molbev/mss221
URIhttp://hdl.handle.net/10261/81629
DOI10.1093/molbev/mss221
Identifiersdoi: 10.1093/molbev/mss221
issn: 0737-4038
e-issn: 1537-1719
Appears in Collections:(IBBTEC) Artículos
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