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Tissue plasminogen activator induces microglial inflammation via a noncatalytic molecular mechanism involving activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and Akt signaling pathways and AnnexinA2 and Galectin-1 receptors

AuthorsSerratosa, Joan ; Tusell, Josep Maria ; Saura, Josep ; Planas, Anna M. ; Navarro, Pilar
Issue Date2012
PublisherJohn Wiley & Sons
CitationGlia 60(4): 526-540 (2012)
AbstractInflammatory responses mediated by glial cells play a critical role in many pathological situations related to neurodegeneration such as Alzheimer's disease. Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is a serine protease which best-known function is fibrinolysis, but it is also involved in many other physiological and pathological events as microglial activation. Here, we found that tPA is required for Aβ-mediated microglial inflammatory response and tumor necrosis factor-α release. We further investigated the molecular mechanism responsible for tPA-mediated microglial activation. We found that tPA induces a catalytic-independent rapid and sustained activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), Akt, and p38 signaling pathways. Inhibition of ERK1/2 and JNK resulted in a strong inhibition of microglial activation, whereas Akt inhibition led to increased inflammatory response, suggesting specific functions for each signaling pathway in the regulation of microglial activation. Furthermore, we demonstrated that AnnexinA2 and Galectin-1 receptors are involved in tPA signaling and inflammatory response in glial cells. This study provides new evidences supporting that tPA plays a cytokine-like role in glial activation by triggering receptor-mediated intracellular signaling circuits and opens new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of neurological disorders in which neuroinflammation plays a pathogenic role. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
DescriptionEl pdf del artículo es la versión pre-print.-- et al.
Publisher version (URL)http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/glia.22284
Identifiersdoi: 10.1002/glia.22284
issn: 0894-1491
e-issn: 1098-1136
Appears in Collections:(IIBB) Artículos
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