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Title

Induction of COX-2 enzyme and down-regulation of COX-1 expression by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) control prostaglandin E 2 production in astrocytes

AuthorsFont-Nieves, Míriam ; Sans-Fons, M. Gloria ; Gorina, Roser ; Bonfill-Teixidor, Ester ; Salas-Perdomo, Angélica ; Márquez-Kisinousky, Leonardo ; Santalucía, Tomàs ; Planas, Anna M.
Issue Date2012
PublisherAmerican Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
CitationJournal of Biological Chemistry 287(9): 6454-6468 (2012)
AbstractPathological conditions and pro-inflammatory stimuli in the brain induce cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), a key enzyme in arachidonic acid metabolism mediating the production of prostanoids that, among other actions, have strong vasoactive properties. Although low basal cerebral COX-2 expression has been reported, COX-2 is strongly induced by pro-inflammatory challenges, whereas COX-1 is constitutively expressed. However, the contribution of these enzymes in prostanoid formation varies depending on the stimuli and cell type. Astrocyte feet surround cerebral microvessels and release molecules that can trigger vascular responses. Here, we investigate the regulation of COX-2 induction and its role in prostanoid generation after a pro-inflammatory challenge with the bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in astroglia. Intracerebral administration of LPS in rodents induced strong COX-2 expression mainly in astroglia and microglia, whereas COX-1 expression was predominant in microglia and did not increase. In cultured astrocytes, LPS strongly induced COX-2 and microsomal prostaglandin-E 2(PGE 2) synthase-1, mediated by the MyD88-dependent NFκB pathway and influenced by mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. Studies in COX-deficient cells and using COX inhibitors demonstrated that COX-2 mediated the high production of PGE 2 and, to a lesser extent, other prostanoids after LPS. In contrast, LPS down-regulated COX-1 in an MyD88-dependent fashion, and COX-1 deficiency increased PGE 2 production after LPS. The results show that astrocytes respond to LPS by a COX- 2-dependent production of prostanoids, mainly vasoactive PGE 2, and suggest that the coordinated down-regulation of COX-1 facilitates PGE 2 production after TLR-4 activation. These effects might induce cerebral blood flow responses to brain inflammation. © 2012 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
DescriptionThis research was originally published in Journal of Biological Chemistry 287(9): 6454-6468 (2012) © the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology".-- El pdf es el manuscrito revisado de autor.
Publisher version (URL)http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M111.327874
URIhttp://hdl.handle.net/10261/80746
DOI10.1074/jbc.M111.327874
Identifiersdoi: 10.1074/jbc.M111.327874
issn: 0021-9258
e-issn: 1083-351X
Appears in Collections:(IIBB) Artículos
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