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Activation of the prolactin gene by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α appears to be DNA binding-independent

AuthorsTolón, Rosa M.; Castillo, Ana I. CSIC; Aranda, Ana CSIC ORCID
Issue Date1998
PublisherAmerican Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
CitationJournal of Biological Chemistry 273(41): 26652-26661 (1998)
AbstractAlthough the effects of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) have been studied primarily in adipocytes and liver, the wide distribution of these receptors suggests that they might also play a role in other cell types. We present evidence that PPAR activators stimulate the expression of the prolactin gene in pituitary GH4C1 cells. Transfection assays in non-pituitary HeLa cells showed that stimulation of the prolactin promoter by PPARα requires the presence of the transcription factor GHF-1 (or Pit-1). Proximal promoter sequences confer responsiveness to PPARα, and activation by this receptor is lost concomitantly with the response to GHF- 1. Surprisingly, expression of the retinoid X receptor (RXR) abolishes stimulation by PPARα. Furthermore, the promoter region that confers PPARα responsiveness does not contain a PPAR response element. This suggests that the transcriptional effect of PPARα might be mediated by protein-protein interactions rather than by binding of PP RXR to the promoter. A direct interaction between PPARα and GHF-1 was confirmed by in vitro binding studies. Expression of the coactivators SRC-1 and CREB-binding protein, which bind to PPAR, also enhanced the responsiveness of the prolactin promoter to PPARα. Furthermore, CREB-binding protein also significantly increased activation by GHF-1, and both proteins associated in vitro. Thus, PPARα, a receptor that normally acts as a ligand-dependent transcription factor by binding to specific DNA sequences in one context, can also stimulate the prolactin promoter by association with GHF-1 and coactivator proteins.
Identifiersdoi: 10.1074/jbc.273.41.26652
issn: 0021-9258
e-issn: 1083-351X
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