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Title

Bricks in historical buildings of Toledo City: characterisation and restoration

AuthorsLópez-Arce, Paula CSIC ORCID; García-Guinea, Javier CSIC ORCID ; Gracia, Mercedes; Obis, Joaquín
KeywordsBrick characterisation
Heritage
Historical buildings
XRD
DTA
SEM
Mössbauer spectroscopy
Optical polarising microscope
Paleoindicator
Raw material provenance
Issue DateJan-2003
PublisherElsevier
CitationMaterials Characterization 50(1): 59-68 (2003)
AbstractTwo different types of ancient bricks (12th to 14th centuries) collected from historical buildings of Toledo (Spain) were characterised by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometers (SEM/EDS), electron probe microanalysis (EM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and 57Fe-Mössbauer spectroscopy. Physical properties such as water absorption and suction, porosity, density and compression strength were also determined. Several minerals found in the brick matrix, such as garnet, let us infer raw material sources; calcite, dolomite, illite and neoformed gehlenite and diopside phases, on temperature reached in firing; secondary calcite, on first cooling scenarios; and manganese micronodules, on late pollution environments. XRD and DTA of original and refired samples supply information about firing temperatures. Additional data on firing conditions and type of the original clay are provided by the Mössbauer study. Physical properties of both types of bricks were compared and correlated with raw materials and fabric and firing technology employed. The physicochemical characterisation of these bricks provides valuable data for restoration purposes to formulate new specific bricks using neighbouring raw materials.
Description10 pages (final publisher version), 23 pages (attached post-print version).
Publisher version (URL)http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1044-5803(03)00101-3
URIhttp://hdl.handle.net/10261/7905
DOI10.1016/S1044-5803(03)00101-3
ISSN1044-5803
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(IGE) Artículos

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