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Architecture and orogenic evolution of the northeastern Outer Carpathians from cross-section balancing and forward modeling

AuthorsGlgala, T.; Vergés, Jaume ; Saura, Eduard ; Malata, T.; Ringenbach, J.-C.; Werner, P.; Krzywiec, P.
KeywordsOuter Carpathians
Fold-and-thrust belt
Orogenic evolution
Balanced cross-section
Kinematic model
Issue Date2012
CitationTectonophysics 532-535: 223- 241 (2012)
AbstractNew balanced and restored cross-sections and a 2D kinematic model illustrate the present geometry of the northeastern Outer Carpathians and quantify their orogenic evolution between the late Eocene and the late Miocene (~. 35.3 to ~. 11.0. Ma). The balanced cross-section is built on extensive surface and subsurface data and depicts an imbricate fan internally stacked along high-displacement out-of-sequence thrusts. Section restoration yielded 507. km of minimum orogenic shortening - at least ~. 230. km more than proposed in previous studies. Our shortening estimate relies on accurate thicknesses of lithostratigraphic units, in most cases thinner than applied before. The average convergence rate between ~. 35.3 and ~. 11.0. Ma is estimated at 20.8. km/My. The forward model, constrained by lower and upper ages of syn-orogenic deposits, traces the advance of the Outer Carpathian accretionary wedge and proves kinematic admissibility of the balanced and restored cross-sections. Progradation rates of the foreland basin depositional sequences, evolving from 9-11. km/My between ~. 41.5 and ~. 21.1. Ma to 22-39. km/My between ~. 21.1 and ~. 11.0. Ma, suggest a two-phase dynamics of the orogenic system. The acceleration of foreland migration at ~. 21.1. Ma likely reflects the onset of northward subduction retreat, linked to the rollback of the European lower plate that gave rise to coeval back-arc extension in the Pannonian Basin. © 2012 Elsevier B.V..
Publisher version (URL)http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tecto.2012.02.014
Identifiersdoi: 10.1016/j.tecto.2012.02.014
issn: 0040-1951
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