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Gonadal hormones and the control of reactive gliosis

AuthorsArévalo, María Ángeles ; Santos-Galindo, María ; Acaz-Fonseca, E.; Azcoitia, I.; García-Segura, Luis M.
Issue Date2013
PublisherAcademic Press
CitationHormones and Behavior 63: 216-221 (2013)
AbstractThis article is part of a Special Issue >Hormones & Neurotrauma>.Astrocytes and microglia respond to central nervous system (CNS) injury with changes in morphology, proliferation, migration and expression of inflammatory regulators. This phenomenon is known as reactive gliosis. Activation of astrocytes and microglia after acute neural insults, such as stroke or traumatic CNS injury, is considered to be an adaptive response that contributes to minimize neuronal damage. However, reactive gliosis may amplify CNS damage under chronic neurodegenerative conditions. Progesterone, estradiol and testosterone have been shown to control reactive gliosis in different models of CNS injury, modifying the number of reactive astrocytes and reactive microglia and the expression of anti-inflammatory and proinflammatory mediators. The actions of gonadal hormones on reactive gliosis involve different mechanisms, including the modulation of the activity of steroid receptors, such as estrogen receptors α and β, the regulation of nuclear factor-κB mediated transcription of inflammatory molecules and the recruitment of the transcriptional corepressor c-terminal binding protein to proinflammatory promoters. In addition, the Parkinson's disease related gene parkin and the endocannabinoid system also participate in the regulation of reactive gliosis by estradiol. The control exerted by gonadal hormones on reactive gliosis may affect the response of neural tissue to trauma and neurodegeneration and may contribute to sex differences in the manifestation of neurodegenerative diseases. However, the precise functional consequences of the regulation of reactive gliosis by gonadal hormones under acute and chronic neurodegenerative conditions are still not fully clarified. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.
Identifiersdoi: 10.1016/j.yhbeh.2012.02.021
issn: 0018-506X
Appears in Collections:(IC) Artículos
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