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Title

Greener Solvents for Old Challenges

AuthorsGolmakani, M. T.; Mendiola, J. A. ; Rezaei, K.; Ibáñez, Elena
Issue Date2012
CitationISSF 2012
AbstractAt present, there is a clear need for alternative non-toxic solvents able to meet the Principles of Green Chemistry and Green Engineering and preferentially obtained from renewable sources. In the present work, three green solvents have been used, namely ethanol, ethyl lactate and limonene, to obtain high value lipids from the cyanobacteria Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis). Among the lipids found in Spirulina, γ-linolenic acid (GLA) is the most valuable, and is found at high concentration. Moreover, considering that Spirulina is easy to grow, and that the syntheses of different compounds mainly depend on growing conditions, the interest of obtaining lipids from algae and microalgae is increasing every day. Ethyl lactate and limonene are from natural origin and easily biodegradable; they can be found traditionally in consumed foodstuff like wine or beer (ethyl lactate) or fruits (limonene). These solvents have polarities in the range of acetonitrile and hexane, respectively. Therefore, these solvents, together with ethanol, can be used to cover a wide range of polarities. In order to achieve greener extractions, pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) with ethanol, ethyl lactate, limonene and their binary mixtures, together with ethanol-expanded CO2 (gas-expanded liquid; GXL) extraction were selected. Advantages of PLE are mainly the low solvent consumption, short extraction times and improved kinetics. On the other hand, the use of GXLs has, over SFE, the advantage of milder pressures and can be considered as an extraction liquid media ranging from the neat organic solvent to supercritical-CO2 (SC-CO2). Optimization of extraction conditions was carried out using chemometric approaches, namely: a Taguchi L9 design for the gas expanded liquid extractions (ethanol:CO2) and a central composite (43) for PLE experiments. The responses elected for the optimization were: total yield, fatty acid content and γ-linolenic acid in extracts. For its quantification GC-MS was used previous derivatization by ethylation.
DescriptionTrabajo presentado al 10th International Symposium on Supercritical Fluids celebrado en San Francisco (US) del 13 al 16 de mayo de 2012.
URIhttp://hdl.handle.net/10261/63934
Appears in Collections:(CIB) Comunicaciones congresos
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