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Concomitant measurements of stem sap flow and leaf turgor pressure in olive trees using the leaf patch clamp pressure probe

AuthorsRodríguez Domínguez, Celia M. ; Fernández Luque, José Enrique ; Díaz-Espejo, Antonio ; Cuevas Sánchez, Mª Victoria ; Torres Ruiz, José Manuel ; Pérez Martín, Alfonso
Issue Date2012
CitationAgricultural Water Management 114: 50-58 (2012)
AbstractStem sap flow (Q) and leaf turgor pressure (P c) were measured simultaneously on 4-year-old, 2.4m tall 'Arbequina' olive trees in a hedgerow orchard. Measurements were performed on well-watered control trees as well as on 60RDI and 30RDI trees (RDI=regulated deficit irrigation). The 60RDI trees received 59.2% of the crop water needs (ET c), and the 30RDI trees received 29.4% of ET c. P c was determined non-invasively using the magnetic leaf patch clamp pressure probe (ZIM probe). The patch pressure P p measured by the probe is inversely correlated with turgor pressure at P c>ca. 50kPa. P c is coupled with xylem pressure; thus P p yields information about the development of tension in xylem. In the case of the control trees a positive correlation between Q and P p was generally found, i.e. Q increased usually with increasing P p and decreased with decreasing P p, as expected. However, Q peaking did not always coincided with P p peaking at noon. Occasionally, Q peaking preceded or followed P p peaking with a time difference of up to 3h in both cases. Under some circumstances, the onset of Q after sunrise was greatly delayed, even though a pronounced increase of P p was observed. A delayed onset of Q after sunrise resulted in hysteresis phenomena, i.e. the linear increase of Q and P p in the morning hours did not coincide with the corresponding decrease of Q and P p in the afternoon. The development of severe water stress (P c<ca. 50kPa) associated with the increase in the intercellular spaces of the spongy tissue in the leaves resulted in inverted diurnal P p curves, i.e. minimum P p values were recorded at noon and maximum P p values during the night on the 30RDI trees. The effects were reversible as shown by re-watering. By contrast, the magnitude of Q decreased continuously from the turgescent state to the state of severe water stress; maximum Q values were still recorded around noon. The data suggests that short-range tension forces are responsible for water lifting in olive trees and that water uptake from water storage reservoirs must play an important role in the supply of the leaves with water. Furthermore, for setting of irrigation thresholds the finding of shape changes of the P p curves upon severe water stress seems to be a useful indicator. Such shape changes are detected and monitored more sensitively than changes in the magnitude of sap flow rates or of turgor pressure.
Identifiersdoi: 10.1016/j.agwat.2012.07.007
issn: 0378-3774
Appears in Collections:(IRNAS) Artículos
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