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Title

Inhibition of the bioactivation of the neurotoxin MPTP by antioxidants, redox agents and monoamine oxidase inhibitors

AuthorsHerraiz Tomico, Tomás ; Guillén Fuerte, Hugo
Issue Date2011
PublisherElsevier
CitationFood and Chemical Toxicology 49: 1773- 1781 (2011)
AbstractMonoamine oxidase (MAO) enzymes located in human mitochondria oxidize neurotransmitters and bioactivate the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) by oxidation to directly-acting neurotoxic pyridinium cations (MPDP+/MPP+) that produce Parkinsonism. Antioxidants and MAO inhibitors are useful as neuroprotectants. Naturally-occurring substances, antioxidants and redox agents were assessed as inhibitors of the oxidation (bioactivation) of MPTP by human mitochondria and MAO enzymes. Methylene blue, 5-nitroindazole, norharman (β-carboline), 9-methylnorharman (9-methyl-β-carboline) and menadione (vitamin-K analogue) highly inhibited the oxidation of MPTP to the neurotoxic species, MPDP+/MPP+, in human mitochondria (IC50 of 0.18, 3.1, 9.9, 7.3, and 12.6μM, respectively). Inhibition by methylene blue was similar to R-deprenyl (IC50 of 0.15μM), a known neuroprotectant. The naturally-occurring β-carbolines, harmine, harmaline and tetrahydro-β-carboline, and the antioxidants, melatonin, resveratrol, quercetin and catechin showed little or no inhibition. Oxidation of MPTP in mitochondria was performed by human MAO-B and the above active compounds were also inhibitors of this isozyme. Norharman and 5-nitroindazole were competitive inhibitors of MAO-B whereas methylene blue inhibited MPTP oxidation (IC50 of 50nM) under a mixed type and predominantly uncompetitive mechanism. Methylene blue, 5-nitroindazole, norharman, 9-methylnorharman and menadione inhibit MAO-B in mitochondria and afford protective effects, as suggested by a reduced conversion of MPTP to neurotoxic species. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.
URIhttp://hdl.handle.net/10261/63126
DOI10.1016/j.fct.2011.04.026
Identifiersdoi: 10.1016/j.fct.2011.04.026
issn: 0278-6915
Appears in Collections:(ICTAN) Artículos
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