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Analysis of perfluorinated compounds in sewage sludge by pressurized solvent extraction followed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry

AuthorsLlorca, Marta ; Farré Urgell, Marinel.la; Picó, Yolanda; Barceló, Damià
Issue Date2011
CitationJournal of Chromatography A 1218 (30): 4840-4846 (2011)
AbstractPerfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are widely used in everyday life and one of the main recipients of these compounds is waste water treatment plants (WWTPs). Due to the structure and physicochemical properties of PFCs, these compounds could be redistributed from influent water to sludge. This work reports a new validated protocol for the analysis of 13 perfluorinated acids, 4 perfluorosulfonates and the perfluorooctanesulfonamide. The present work has been focused to develop a sensitive and robust method for the analysis of 18 PFCs in sewage sludge, based on pressurized solvent extraction (PSE) followed by solid phase extraction (SPE) clean-up, analytes separation by liquid chromatography and analysis in a hybrid quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometer (LC-QLiT-MS/MS) working in single reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. The final methodology was validated using a blank sewage sludge fortified at different concentration levels. The method limits of detection were ranging in general from 15 to 79. ng/kg. These values were comparable to the decision limit (CCα) and the detection capability (CCβ), which were 17-1134. ng/kg and 18-1347. ng/kg, respectively. The percentage of recovery was from 79 to 111% in the most cases at different spiked levels. Finally, the repeatability of the method was in the range 4% (PFOS and PFOA) to 25% (RSD %). In order to evaluate the applicability of the method, 5 sludge samples were analyzed. The results showed that the 18 PFCs were present in all samples. However, the concentrations for most of them were below the limits of quantification. The compound present at higher concentrations was perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), which was in concentrations from 53.0 to 121.1 μg/kg. The other PFCs were at concentrations between 0.3 and 30.3 μg/kg. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.
Identifiersdoi: 10.1016/j.chroma.2011.01.085
issn: 0021-9673
e-issn: 1873-3778
Appears in Collections:(IDAEA) Artículos
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