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Assessing factors influencing the release of hexazinone from clay-based formulations

AuthorsCelis, R. ; Facenda, G. ; Hermosín, M.C. ; Cornejo, J.
Issue Date2005
PublisherTaylor & Francis
CitationInternational Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry 85(15): 1153-1164 (2005)
AbstractNew designs of pesticide formulations based on organoclays are receiving increasing attention in reducing offsite movement of pesticides in the environment and in prolonging the efficacy of soil-applied pesticides. In the present article, we report the results of laboratory and field experiments conducted to evaluate the influence of the saturating cation, the sorbent:herbicide ratio, and the type of preparation on the controlled release properties of organoclay-based formulations of the herbicide hexazinone. Two organoclays with different affinities for hexazinone (hexadecyltrimethylammonium-exchanged Arizona montmorillonite, HDTMA-SA, and phenyltrimethylammonium-exchanged Arizona montmorillonite, PTMA-SA), two herbicide loadings (10% and 20% AI), and three types of preparation were assayed. Laboratory experiments showed that hexazinone formulations based on HDTMA-SA displayed slow-release properties in water, retarded herbicide leaching through soil columns, and maintained a herbicidal efficacy similar to that of the currently available commercial hexazinone formulation (wettable powder). In contrast, PTMA-SA formulations released the herbicide instantaneously and did not display slow-release properties. High organoclay-herbicide ratios and the use of organic solvent made the interaction between HDTMA-SA and the herbicide more intimate and reduced the release rate of hexazinone, suggesting that a range of release and leaching behaviours can be achieved by selecting the type of preparation and the herbicide loading in the formulations. A field experiment confirmed the usefulness of HDTMA-SA formulations of hexazinone to reduce herbicide leaching while maintaining weed-control efficacy.
Identifiersdoi: 10.1080/03067310500273302
issn: 0306-7319
e-issn: 1029-0397
Appears in Collections:(IRNAS) Artículos
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