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Absence of quasi-morphine withdrawal syndrome in adenosine A2A receptor knockout mice

AuthorsBilbao, Ainhoa; Cippitelli, A.; Martín- Hernández, A. B.; Granado, Noelia ; Ortiz, Óscar ; Bezard, Erwan; Chen, Jiang-Fan; Navarro, Miguel; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Moratalla, Rosario
Issue Date2006
CitationPsychopharmacology 185: 160- 168 (2006)
AbstractRationale: Caffeine and other methylxanthines induce behavioral activation and anxiety responses in mice via antagonist action at A2A adenosine receptors. When combined with the opioid antagonist naloxone, methylxanthines produce a characteristic quasi-morphine withdrawal syndrome (QMWS) in opiate-naive animals. Objectives: The aim of this study was to establish the role of A2A receptors in the quasi-morphine withdrawal syndrome induced by co-administration of caffeine and naloxone and in the behavioral effects of caffeine. Methods: We have used A2A receptor knockout (A2AR-/-) mice in comparison with their wild-type and heterozygous littermates to measure locomotor activity in the open field and withdrawal symptoms induced by caffeine and naloxone. Naïve wild-type and knockout mice were also examined for enkephalin and dynorphin mRNA expression by in situ hybridization and for μ-opiate receptor by ligand binding autoradiography to check for possible opiate receptor changes induced by A 2A receptor inactivation. Results: Caffeine increases locomotion and anxiety in wild-type animals, but it has no psychomotor effects in A 2AR-/- mice. Co-administration of caffeine (20 mg/kg) and naloxone (2 mg/kg) resulted in a severe quasi-morphine withdrawal syndrome in wild-type mice that was almost completely abolished in A2AR -/- mice. Heterozygous animals exhibited a 40% reduction in withdrawal symptoms, suggesting that there is no genetic/developmental compensation for the inactivation of one of the A2AR alleles. A 2AR-/- and wild-type mice have similar levels of striatal μ-opioid receptors, thus the effect is not due to altered opioid receptor expression. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that A2A receptors are required for the induction of quasi-morphine withdrawal syndrome by co-administration of caffeine and naloxone and implicate striatal A2A receptors and μ-opiate receptors in tonic inhibition of motor activity in the striatum. © Springer-Verlag 2006.
Identifiersdoi: 10.1007/s00213-005-0284-0
issn: 0033-3158
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