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dc.contributor.authorPineda, M. C.-
dc.contributor.authorMcQuaid, Christopher D.-
dc.contributor.authorTuron, Xavier-
dc.contributor.authorLópez-Legentil, S.-
dc.contributor.authorOrdóñez, Víctor-
dc.contributor.authorRius, Marc-
dc.identifier.citationPLoS ONE 7(10) :e46672 (2012)es_ES
dc.description11 páginas, 4 tablas, 4 figuras.es_ES
dc.description.abstractAll ontogenetic stages of a life cycle are exposed to environmental conditions so that population persistence depends on the performance of both adults and offspring. Most studies analysing the influence of abiotic conditions on species performance have focussed on adults, while studies covering early life-history stages remain rare. We investigated the responses of early stages of two widely introduced ascidians, Styela plicata and Microcosmus squamiger, to different abiotic conditions. Stressors mimicked conditions in the habitats where both species can be found in their distributional ranges and responses were related to the selection potential of their populations by analysing their genetic diversity. Four developmental stages (egg fertilisation, larval development, settlement, metamorphosis) were studied after exposure to high temperature (30uC), low salinities (26 and 22%) and high copper concentrations (25, 50 and 100 mg/L). Although most stressors effectively led to failure of complete development (fertilisation through metamorphosis), fertilisation and larval development were the most sensitive stages. All the studied stressors affected the development of both species, though responses differed with stage and stressor. S. plicata was overall more resistant to copper, and some stages of M. squamiger to low salinities. No relationship was found between parental genetic composition and responses to stressors. We conclude that successful development can be prevented at several life-history stages, and therefore, it is essential to consider multiple stages when assessing species’ abilities to tolerate stress. Moreover, we found that early development of these species cannot be completed under conditions prevailing where adults live. These populations must therefore recruit from elsewhere or reproduce during temporal windows of more benign conditions. Alternatively, novel strategies or behaviours that increase overall reproductive success might be responsible for ensuring population survival.es_ES
dc.description.sponsorshipThe research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007–2013), through the Marie Curie International Reintegration Grant (EU-FP7-PEOPLE-2010-RG 277038) to S.L.-L. and a Marie Curie International Outgoing fellowship (EU-FP7-PEOPLE- 2009-IOF-254634) to M.R. Funding was also provided by the Spanish Government projects CTM2010- 22218 and CTM2010-17755, and by the South African Research Chairs Initiative of the Department of Science and Technology and the National Research Foundation. MCP was awarded with an APIF fellowship from the University of Barcelona travel to South Africaes_ES
dc.publisherPublic Library of Sciencees_ES
dc.relation.isversionofPublisher’s version-
dc.titleTough Adults, Frail Babies: An Analysis of Stress Sensitivity across Early Life-History Stages of Widely Introduced Marine Invertebrateses_ES
dc.description.peerreviewedPeer reviewedes_ES
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