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|dc.identifier.citation||Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 39: 498-508 (2011)||es_ES|
|dc.description||11 páginas, 6 figuras , 1 tabla.||es_ES|
|dc.description.abstract||Host recognition is a key process in oligolectic bees but the mechanisms through which they ﬁnd and recognize appropriate pollen host plant are not entirely clear. Hoplitis adunca is a monolectic bee collecting pollen only from Echium spp. (Boraginaceae). We aimed to test whether Echium vulgare ﬂoral scent plays a major role in the attraction of H. adunca females, and to identify components of E. vulgare scent that may be involved in this speciﬁc attraction. We used a combination of behavioral and chemical (GC/GC–MS, PTR-MS) analyses. In order to identify the chemical cues likely to be involved in the speciﬁc attraction of H. adunca, we compared the scent of fresh ﬂowers, nectar, pollen, and whole plants of E. vulgare and Anchusa ofﬁcinalis, another Boraginaceae, which does not attract H. adunca. H. adunca females were attracted to the scent of E. vulgare ﬂowers when offered against a blank or against the scent of A. ofﬁcinalis ﬂowers. However, H. adunca females were not attracted to the scent of A. ofﬁcinalis ﬂowers when offered against a blank. The emission spectra of the two plant species differed markedly, as did the emission spectra of various ﬂower components (pollen, nectar and whole ﬂowers) within a species. Pollen presented a low volatile release, but emitted signiﬁcantly higher amounts of mass 55 (butanal, 1,3-butadiene, or other volatiles of molecular mass 54), and mass 83 (hexanal, hexenols, hexenyl acetate, or other volatiles of molecular mass 82) in E. vulgare than in A. ofﬁcinalis. Nectar produced a particular emission spectrum with high emission rates of masses 109 and 123. Mass 109 may likely correspond to 1,4-benzoquinone, a volatile speciﬁcally measured in E. vulgare in parallel studies to this one. The ﬂower emission spectrum was mainly a combination of the pollen and the nectar scents, although it also contained additional volatile compounds such as those of mass 63 or mass 81. As for terpenes, E. vulgare emitted limonene, longicyclene, junipene, trans-caryophyllene and a-humulene, that were not detected in A. ofﬁcinalis, and the most emitted monoterpenes were a-pinene, junipene and limonene whereas the most emitted terpenoid by A. ofﬁcinalis was a-pinene. After identifying these chemical cues, olfactory/behavioural assays with speciﬁc volatiles and combinations of volatiles are necessary to understand the chemical interactions of the H. adunca-E. vulgare system.||es_ES|
|dc.description.sponsorship||This research was supported by Spanish MEC grants CGL-2006-04025/BOS, CGL2010-17172, and Consolider-Ingenio Montes CSD2008-00040, the European Science Foundation “VOCBAS” program, and a Catalan government SGR2009-458 grant.||es_ES|
|dc.subject||Volatile organic compounds||es_ES|
|dc.title||Chemical cues involved in the attraction of the oligolectic bee Hoplitis adunca to its host plant Echium vulgare||es_ES|
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