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Mitochondrial β-Cyanoalanine Synthase Is Essential for Root Hair Formation in Arabidopsis thaliana

AuthorsGarcía, Irene ; Castellano, José María ; Vioque, Blanca ; Solano, Roberto; Gotor, Cecilia ; Romero, Luis C.
Issue DateOct-2010
PublisherAmerican Society of Plant Biologists
CitationPlant Cell 22(10): 3268-3279 (2010)
AbstractCyanide is stoichiometrically produced as a coproduct of the ethylene biosynthesis pathway and is detoxified by β-cyanoalanine synthase enzymes. The molecular and phenotypical analysis of T-DNA insertion mutants of the mitochondrial β-cyanoalanine synthase CYS-C1 suggests that discrete accumulation of cyanide is not toxic for the plant and does not alter mitochondrial respiration rates but does act as a strong inhibitor of root hair development. The cys-c1 null allele is defective in root hair formation and accumulates cyanide in root tissues. The root hair defect is phenocopied in wild-type plants by the exogenous addition of cyanide to the growth medium and is reversed by the addition of hydroxocobalamin or by genetic complementation with the CYS-C1 gene. Hydroxocobalamin not only recovers the root phenotype of the mutant but also the formation of reactive oxygen species at the initial step of root hair tip growth. Transcriptional profiling of the cys-c1 mutant reveals that cyanide accumulation acts as a repressive signal for several genes encoding enzymes involved in cell wall rebuilding and the formation of the root hair tip as well as genes involved in ethylene signaling and metabolism. Our results demonstrate that mitochondrial β-cyanoalanine synthase activity is essential to maintain a low level of cyanide for proper root hair development.
Publisher version (URL)http://dx.doi.org/10.​1105/​tpc.​110.​076828
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