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Fermentation profiles of Manzanilla-Aloreña cracked green table olives in different chloride salt mixtures

AuthorsBautista-Gallego, J. ; Arroyo López, Francisco Noé ; Durán Quintana, M.ª Carmen ; Garrido Fernández, A.
KeywordsTable olive
Fermentation profile
Sodium chloride
Calcium chloride
Potassium chloride
Issue DateMay-2010
CitationFood Microbiology 27(3): 403-412 (2010)
AbstractNaCl plays an important role in table olive processing affecting the flavour and microbiological stability of the final product. However, consumers demand foods low in sodium, which makes necessary to decrease levels of this mineral in fruits. In this work, the effects of diverse mixtures of NaCl, CaCl2 and KCl on the fermentation profiles of cracked directly brined Manzanilla-Aloreña olives, were studied by means of response surface methodology based in a simplex lattice mixture design with constrains. All salt combinations led to lactic acid processes. The growth of Enterobacteriaceae populations was always limited and partially inhibited by the presence of CaCl2. Only time to reach half maximum populations and decline rates of yeasts, which were higher as concentrations of NaCl or KCl increased, were affected, and correspondingly modelled, as a function of salt mixtures. However, lactic acid bacteria growth parameters could not be related to initial environmental conditions. They had a longer lag phase, slower growth and higher population levels than yeasts. Overall, the presence of CaCl2 led to a slower Enterobacteriaceae and lactic acid bacteria growth than the traditional NaCl brine but to higher yeast activity. The presence of CaCl2 in the fermentation brines also led to higher water activity, lower pH and combined acidity as well as a faster acidification while NaCl and KCl had fairly similar behaviours. Apparently, NaCl may be substituted in diverse proportions with KCl or CaCl2 without substantially disturbing water activity or the usual fermentation profiles while producing olives with lower salt content.
Publisher version (URL)http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fm.2009.11.015
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