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dc.contributor.authorOrtiz-Llorente, María Josefa-
dc.contributor.authorÁlvarez Cobelas, Miguel-
dc.identifier.citationAtmospheric Environment 59: 328–337 (2012)es_ES
dc.description.abstractA literature review of quantitative data was carried out to conduct a cross-system study on methaneemissions relating peak emissions (PE) and annual emissions (AE) in five types of non-managed ecosystems: estuaries, lakes, oceans, streams and wetlands. PE spanned eight orders of magnitude (0.015 μg CH4 m−2 h−1–300 mg CH4 m−2 h−1) while AE spanned seven (0.078–19044 g CH4 m−2 yr−1). PE and AE were strongly related worldwide (r2 = 0.93). There was no relationship between AE and latitude, with highly variable PE across latitudes and climates. The coefficient of variation (CV) was greatest for emissions in oceans and estuaries, while the highest emission rate was recorded in wetlands and lakes. Efflux from coastal areas and estuaries was higher than that from upwelling areas and deep seas. Concerning wetland types, marshes showed the highest PE with the highest wetlandemissions occurring in sites dominated by big helophytes. Non-stratifying- and eutrophic lakes displayed more emissions than other lake types, but there was no environmental variable that might predict methaneemissions from lakes on a worldwide basis. Generally, most ecosystem types followed a seasonal pattern of emissions, with a maximum in summer, except in estuaries which did not show any distinct pattern. Regarding the importance of hot spots within most ecosystems, more spatial variability of CH4emissions was observed in lakes than in wetlands and oceans; however, no relationship between emissions and spatial variability was found. A positive relationship, albeit weak, was found between methane flux and either temperature or irradiance in wetlands; a narrow range of both negative and positive values of the water table promoted CH4emissions. Previously, little was known about the factors controlling efflux from river and marine environments. Our study suggests that local conditions are important in controlling CH4emissions, because the variability explained by the more commonly studied abiotic factors is low worldwide. This precludes the use of these variables to develop models to predict emissions at regional scales or wider, despite the many attempts made in the past. This makes local assessments of emissions essential, particularly in warm, temperate and tropical areas of the world. Future research aiming to shed light on CH4 fluxes from estuaries, lakes, oceans, rivers and wetlands must: 1) produce more detailed data on controlling factors; 2) increase efforts to fully characterize spatial and temporal heterogeneity; 3) combine bottom-up (measurements) and top-down (modelling) approaches.es_ES
dc.description.sponsorshipThe research has been supported by the Spanish Ministry of Environment, projects 81/2005 and 1/2008 of the Spanish Network of National Parks.es_ES
dc.subjectSeasonal emissionses_ES
dc.subjectGlobal emissionses_ES
dc.subjectEnvironmental factorses_ES
dc.subjectScale of observationes_ES
dc.titleComparison of biogenic methane emissions from unmanaged estuaries, lakes, oceans, rivers and wetlandses_ES
dc.description.peerreviewedPeer reviewedes_ES
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