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Testing the threat-sensitive predator avoidance hypothesis: physiological responses and predator pressure in wild rabbits

AuthorsMonclús, Raquel; Palomares, Francisco ; Tablado, Zulima ; Martínez-Fontúrbel, Ana ; Palme, Rupert
KeywordsFecal corticosterone metabolites
Oryctolagus cuniculus
Predator pressure
Threat-sensitive predator avoidance hypothesis
Issue Date2009
CitationOecologia, 158:615–623 (2009)
AbstractPredation is a strong selective force with both direct and indirect effects on an animal’s fitness. In order to increase the chances of survival, animals have developed different antipredator strategies. However, these strategies have associated costs, so animals should assess their actual risk of predation and shape their antipredator effort accordingly. Under a stressful situation, such as the pres- ence of predators, animals display a physiological stress response that might be proportional to the risk perceived. We tested this hypothesis in wild European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), subjected to different predator pressures, in Don˜ ana National Park (Spain). We measured the concentrations of fecal corticosterone metabolites (FCM) in 20 rabbit populations. By means of track cen- suses we obtained indexes of mammalian predator presence for each rabbit population. Other factors that could modify the physiological stress response, such as breeding status, food availability and rabbit density, were also considered. Model selection based on information theory showed that predator pressure was the main factor triggering the glucocorticoid release and that the physio- logical stress response was positively correlated with the indexes of the presence of mammalian carnivore predators. Other factors, such as food availability and density of rabbits, were considerably less important. We conclude that rabbits are able to assess their actual risk of predation and show a threat-sensitive physiological response
Publisher version (URL)http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00442-008-1201-0
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