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Title

Fish melanocortin system

AuthorsCerdá-Reverter, José Miguel ; Agulleiro Gozalbo, Maria Josep ; Guillot, Raúl ; Sánchez, Elisa ; Ceinos, Rosa M. ; Rotllant, Josep
KeywordsMelanocortin-stimulating hormone (MSH)
Proopiomelanocortin (POMC)
Agoutisignalling protein (ASIP)
Agouti-related protein (AGRP)
Melanocortin Receptor
Melanocortin receptor accessory protein (MRAP)
Food Intake
Pigmentation
Stress
Issue Date11-Jun-2011
PublisherElsevier
CitationEuropean Journal of Pharmacology 660(1): 53-60 (2011)
AbstractMelanocortin signalling is mediated by binding to a family of G protein-coupled receptors that positively couple to adenylyl cyclase. Tetrapod species have five melanocortin (MC1-MC5) receptors. The number of receptors varies in fish, zebrafish, for example, having six melanocortin receptors, with two copies of the melanocortin MC5 receptor, while pufferfish have 4 receptors with no melanocortin MC3 receptor and one copy of melanocortin MC5 receptor. Fish genomes also exhibit orthologue genes for agouti-signalling protein (ASP) and -related protein (AGRP). AGRP expression is confined to a small area in the hypothalamus but ASP is expressed in the skin. Fish melanocortin MC2 receptor is specific for ACTH and requires the cooperation of accessory proteins (MRAP) to reach functional expression. The four other melanocortin MC receptors distinctively bind MSHs. The interaction of α-MSH and melanocortin MC 1 receptor plays a key point in the control of the pigmentation and mutations of melanocortin MC1 receptor are responsible for reduced melanization. Both melanocortin MC4 and MC5 receptor are expressed in the hypothalamus, and central melanocortin MC4 receptor expression is thought to regulate the energy balance through the modulation of feeding behaviour. In addition, the peripheral melanocortin system also regulates lipid metabolism by acting at hepatic melanocortin MC2 and MC5 receptors. Both sea bass melanocortin MC1 and MC 4 receptors are constitutively expressed in vitro and both ASP and AGRP work as inverse agonists but only after inhibition of the phosphodiesterase system. Accordingly, the overexpression of AGRP and ASP transgenes promotes obesity and reduces melanization in zebrafish, respectively.
Description31 p. Review
Publisher version (URL)http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2010.10.108
URIhttp://hdl.handle.net/10261/50051
DOI10.1016/j.ejphar.2010.10.108
ISSN0014-2999
E-ISSN1879-0712
Appears in Collections:(IATS) Artículos
(IIM) Artículos
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