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dc.contributor.authorStone, Graham N.-
dc.contributor.authorAtkinson, Rachel-
dc.contributor.authorNieves-Aldrey, J. L.-
dc.contributor.authorMelika, George-
dc.contributor.authorCsóka, György-
dc.contributor.authorHayward, Alexander-
dc.date.accessioned2012-05-10T14:48:31Z-
dc.date.available2012-05-10T14:48:31Z-
dc.date.issued2007-
dc.identifier.citationMolecular Ecology (17) : 652–665es_ES
dc.identifier.issn0962-1083-
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10261/49530-
dc.description14 paginas, 4 figuras et al.es_ES
dc.description.abstractOak gallwasps (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae, Cynipini) are one of seven major animal taxa that commonly reproduce by cyclical parthenogenesis (CP). A major question in research on CP taxa is the frequency with which lineages lose their sexual generations, and diversify as purely asexual radiations. Most oak gallwasp species are only known from an asexual generation, and secondary loss of sex has been conclusively demonstrated in several species, particularly members of the holarctic genus Andricus. This raises the possibility of widespread secondary loss of sex in the Cynipini, and of diversification within purely parthenogenetic lineages. We use two approaches based on analyses of allele frequency data to test for cryptic sexual generations in eight apparently asexual European species distributed through a major western palaearctic lineage of the gallwasp genus Andricus. All species showing adequate levels of polymorphism (7/8) showed signatures of sex compatible with cyclical parthenogenesis. We also use DNA sequence data to test the hypothesis that ignorance of these sexual generations (despite extensive study on this group) results from failure to discriminate among known but morphologically indistinguishable sexual generations. This hypothesis is supported: 35 sequences attributed by leading cynipid taxonomists to a single sexual adult morphospecies, Andricus burgundus, were found to represent the sexual generations of at least six Andricus species. We confirm cryptic sexual generations in a total of 11 Andricus species, suggesting that secondary loss of sex is rare in Andricus.es_ES
dc.description.sponsorshipThis work was supported by grants to G.N.S. from the Royal Society (574006) and NERC (NER/B/S2003/00856, GR/12847 and GR9/03553). R.J.A. was supported by a BBSRC studentship, A.R. was partially funded by a NERC studentship and the Human Frontier Long-term Fellowship Program, and G.A.T.M. was supported by the Royal Society. Additional funding for fieldwork was provided by the Henrietta Hutton Memorial Fund, the John Ray Trust and the Hope Entomological Fund.es_ES
dc.language.isoenges_ES
dc.publisherBlackwell Publishinges_ES
dc.rightsclosedAccesses_ES
dc.subjectCyclical parthenogenesises_ES
dc.subjectCynipides_ES
dc.subjectHeterogonyes_ES
dc.subjectHymenopteraes_ES
dc.subjectSexes_ES
dc.titleEvidence for Widespread Cryptic Sexual Generations in Apparently Purely Asexual Andricus Gallwaspses_ES
dc.typeartículoes_ES
dc.identifier.doi10.1111/j.1365-294X.2007.03573.x-
dc.description.peerreviewedPeer reviewedes_ES
dc.relation.publisherversionhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-294X.2007.03573.xes_ES
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