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Title

AID Induces Double-Strand Breaks at Immunoglobulin Switch Regions and c-MYC Causing Chromosomal Translocations in Yeast THO Mutants

AuthorsRuiz, José F. ; Gómez-González, Belén ; Aguilera, Andrés
KeywordsProto-Oncogene proteins c-myc
AICDA (activation-induced cytidine deaminase)
Chromosomes
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Issue Date24-Feb-2011
PublisherPublic Library of Science
CitationPLoS Genetics 7(2): e1002009 (2011)
AbstractTranscription of the switch (S) regions of immunoglobulin genes in B cells generates stable R-loops that are targeted by Activation Induced Cytidine Deaminase (AID), triggering class switch recombination (CSR), as well as translocations with c-MYC responsible for Burkitt's lymphomas. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, stable R-loops are formed co-transcriptionally in mutants of THO, a conserved nuclear complex involved in mRNP biogenesis. Such R-loops trigger genome instability and facilitate deamination by human AID. To understand the mechanisms that generate genome instability mediated by mRNP biogenesis impairment and by AID, we devised a yeast chromosomal system based on different segments of mammalian S regions and c-MYC for the analysis of chromosomal rearrangements in both wild-type and THO mutants. We demonstrate that AID acts in yeast at heterologous S and c-MYC transcribed sequences leading to double-strand breaks (DSBs) which in turn cause chromosomal translocations via Non-Homologous End Joining (NHEJ). AID–induced translocations were strongly enhanced in yeast THO null mutants, consistent with the idea that AID–mediated DSBs depend on R-loop formation. Our study not only provides new clues to understand the role of mRNP biogenesis in preventing genome rearrangements and the mechanism of AID-mediated genome instability, but also shows that, once uracil residues are produced by AID–mediated deamination, these are processed into DSBs and chromosomal rearrangements by the general and conserved DNA repair functions present from yeast to human cells.
DescriptionThis is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License.
Publisher version (URL)http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002009
URIhttp://hdl.handle.net/10261/49327
DOI10.1371/journal.pgen.1002009
ISSN1553-7390
E-ISSN1553-7404
Appears in Collections:(CABIMER) Artículos
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