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Fermentation of Vigna sinensis var. carilla flours by natural microflora and Lactobacillus species

AutorDoblado, Rosa; Frías, Juana ; Muñoz, Rosario ; Vidal-Valverde, Concepción
Fecha de publicación2003
EditorInternational Association for Food Protection
CitaciónJournal of food protection 66(12): 2313-2320 (2003)
ResumenNatural fermentation and an inoculum containing 10% (vol/vol) Lactobacillus fermentum or Lactobacillus plantarum were used to obtain fermented flours from Vigna sinensis L. var. carilla seeds that had been washed with distilled water and dried at 55°C for 24 h. To optimize the fermentation parameters (lactic acid bacterium level, bean flour concentration, and fermentation time), several small-scale fermentation processes were carried out. On the basis of the results obtained, fermentor-scale bean fermentation by microorganisms present on the seeds (natural fermentation [NF]) or by inoculation with L. plantarum (PF) was carried out at 37°C for 48 h with a concentration of 300 g of bean flour per liter. The fermented flours (NF and PF) were also autoclaved. The levels of alpha-galactosides, inositol phosphates, trypsin inhibitor activity (TIA), soluble carbohydrates, starch (total and available), total available carbohydrates, thiamin, and riboflavin were determined for the processed cowpea flours, and microbiological studies were also carried out. The beans' levels of alpha-galactosides, TIA, and inositol hexaphosphate decreased by 95, 50, and 85%, respectively, for the NF flour and by 87, 27, and 85%, respectively, for the PF flour, while inositol pentaphosphate and inositol tetraphosphate were present in both fermented flours. The sucrose content decreased, and glucose, fructose, and galactose appeared as a result of fermentation. The levels of total available sugars and thiamin decreased by 2 and 12% and by 69 and 43%, respectively, while the riboflavin content increased by 106 and 94% for NF and PF flours, respectively. When NF and PF cowpea flours were heated in an autoclave for 20 min, TIA decreased further (by 80 and 56%, respectively). According to the chemical and microbiological results obtained in this study, fermentation with L. plantarum and autoclaving is an excellent process by which to produce a new functional food from the seed of a cheap legume (Vigna sinensis L. var. carilla).
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