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Enhanced In Vivo Activity of Cefditoren in Pre-Immunized Mice against Penicillin-Resistant S. pneumoniae (Serotypes 6B, 19F and 23F) in a Sepsis Model

AuthorsCafini, Fabio; Ramos-Sevillano, Elisa ; García, Ernesto ; Prieto, Jose
Issue Date10-Aug-2010
PublisherPublic Library of Science
CitationPLoS ONE 5(8): e12041 (2010)
AbstractBackground Specific antibodies are likely to be present before S. pneumoniae infection. We explored cefditoren (CDN) total and free values of serum concentrations exceeding the MIC (t>MIC) related to efficacy in a mice sepsis model, and the effect of specific gammaglobulins on in-vitro phagocytosis and in-vivo efficacy. Methodology/Principal Findings We used three pneumococcal isolates (serotype, MIC of CDN): Strain 1 (6B, 1 µg/ml), Strain 2 (19F, 2 µg/ml) and Strain 3 (23F, 4 µg/ml). Hyperimmune serum (HS) was obtained from mice immunized with heat-inactivated strains. In-vitro, phagocytosis by HS diluted 1/10 in presence/absence of sub-inhibitory concentrations was measured by flow cytometry including fluorescent bacteria and a neutrophil cell line. In-vivo dose-ranging experiments with HS (dilutions 1/2–1/16) and CDN (6.25 mg/kg–100 mg/kg tid for 48 h) were performed to determine the minimal protective dilution/dose (highest survival) and the non-protective highest dilution/dose (highest mortality: HS-np dilution and CDN-np dose) over 7 days. Efficacy of CDN-np in animals pre-immunized with HS-np (combined strategy) was explored and blood bacterial clearance determined. The CDN measured protein binding was 86.9%. In-vitro, CDN significantly increased phagocytosis (vs. HS 1/10). In non pre-immunized animals, t>MIC values for CDN of ≈35% (total) and ≈19% (free) were associated with 100% survival. Significant differences in survival were found between HS-np alone (≤20%) or CDN-np alone (≤20%) vs. the combined strategy (90%, 60% and 60% for Stains 1, 2 and 3), with t>MIC (total/free) of 22.8%/14.3%, 26.8%/16.0%, and 22.4%/12.7% for Strains 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Prior to the second dose (8 h), median bacterial counts were significantly lower in animals surviving vs. dead at day 7. Conclusions/Significance In mice (CDN protein binding similar to humans) total t>MIC values of ≈35% (≈19% free) were efficacious, with a decrease in the required values in pre-immunized animals. This reinforces that immunoprotection to overcome resistance may provide lifesaving strategies.
Publisher version (URL)http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0012041
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