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Manure Composition and Incorporation Effects on Phosphorus in Runoff Following Corn Biomass Removal

AuthorsYagüe Carrasco, María Rosa; Andraski, Todd W.; Laboski, Carrie A. M.
Issue DateNov-2011
PublisherCrop Science Society of America
CitationYagüe RM, Andraski TW, Laboski CAM. Manure Composition and Incorporation Effects on Phosphorus in Runoff Following Corn Biomass Removal. Journal of environmental quality 40 (6): 1963-1971 (2011)
AbstractGreater demand for corn (Zea mays L.) stover for bioenergy use may lead to increased corn production acreage with minimal surface residue cover, resulting in greater risk for soil erosion and phosphorus (P) losses in runoff. A rainfall simulation study was conducted to determine the effects of spring-applied dairy cow (Bos taurus) manure (none, in-barn composted, and exterior walled-enclosure pit) with >200 g kg−1 organic solids content following fall corn biomass removal with and without incorporation (chisel plow [CP] and no-till [NT]) on sediment and P in runoff. Runoff was collected from a 0.83-m2 area for 60 min following the onset of rainfall simulation (76 mm h−1), once in spring and once in fall. Runoff dissolved reactive P (DRP) and dissolved organic P (DOP) concentrations were positively correlated with manure P rate and were higher in NT compared with CP. Conversely, sediment and particulate P (PP) concentrations in runoff were inversely correlated with manure P rate (and manure solids) and were higher in CP compared with NT. Runoff volume where no manure was applied was higher in NT than in CP in spring but similar in fall. The addition of manure reduced runoff volumes by an average of 82% in NT and 42% in CP over spring and fall. Results from this study indicate that surface application of dairy manure with relatively high solids content may reduce sediment and PP losses in runoff without increasing the risk of increased DRP and DOP losses in the year of application where corn biomass is harvested.
Description9 Pag., 6 Tabl., 1 Fig.
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