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Title

Mytilus galloprovincialis Myticin C: A Chemotactic Molecule with Antiviral Activity and Immunoregulatory Properties

AuthorsBalseiro, P. ; Falcó, Alberto; Romero Jódar, Alejandro ; Dios, S. ; Martínez-López, Alicia; Figueras Huerta, Antonio ; Estepa, Amparo; Novoa, Beatriz
KeywordsMytilus galloprovincialis
Myticin
Antiviral activity
Immunoregulatory properties
Issue Date8-Aug-2011
PublisherPublic Library of Science
CitationPLoS ONE 6(8): e23140 (2011)
AbstractPrevious research has shown that an antimicrobial peptide (AMP) of the myticin class C (Myt C) is the most abundantly expressed gene in cDNA and suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH) libraries after immune stimulation of mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. However, to date, the expression pattern, the antimicrobial activities and the immunomodulatory properties of the Myt C peptide have not been determined. In contrast, it is known that Myt C mRNA presents an unusual and high level of polymorphism of unidentified biological significance. Therefore, to provide a better understanding of the features of this interesting molecule, we have investigated its function using four different cloned and expressed variants of Myt C cDNA and polyclonal anti-Myt C sera. The in vivo results suggest that this AMP, mainly present in hemocytes, could be acting as an immune system modulator molecule because its overexpression was able to alter the expression of mussel immune-related genes (as the antimicrobial peptides Myticin B and Mytilin B, the C1q domain-containing protein MgC1q, and lysozyme). Moreover, the in vitro results indicate that Myt C peptides have antimicrobial and chemotactic properties. Their recombinant expression in a fish cell line conferred protection against two different fish viruses (enveloped and nonenveloped). Cell extracts from Myt C expressing fish cells were also able to attract hemocytes. All together, these results suggest that Myt C should be considered not only as an AMP but also as the first chemokine/cytokine-like molecule identified in bivalves and one of the few examples in all of the invertebrates.
Publisher version (URL)http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0023140
URIhttp://hdl.handle.net/10261/39042
DOI10.1371/journal.pone.0023140
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