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Tracking the emergence and dissemination of a blaNDM-23 gene in a multidrug resistance plasmid of Klebsiella pneumoniae

AuthorsGarcía-González, Neris; Beamud, Beatriz CSIC ORCID; Fuster Escrivá, Begoña; Giner, Salvador; Domínguez, Maria Victoria; Sánchez, Antonia; Sevilla, Jordi CSIC; Coque, Teresa; Gimeno, Concepción; González-Candelas, Fernando CSIC ORCID
KeywordsKlebsiella pneumoniae
MDR plasmid
Novel NDM
Genomic epidemiology
Complex class 1 integron
XDR plasmid
Issue Date2023
PublisherAmerican Society for Microbiology
CitationMicrobiology Spectrum 11(2): e0258522 (2023)
AbstractSince the discovery of blaNDM-1, NDM β-lactamases have become one of the most widespread carbapenemases worldwide. To date, 43 different NDM variants have been reported but some, such as blaNDM-23, have not been characterized in detail yet. Here, we describe the emergence of a novel blaNDM-23 allele from a blaNDM-1 ancestor and the multidrug resistance plasmid that has disseminated it through a Klebsiella pneumoniae ST437 clone in several Spanish hospitals. Between 2016 and 2019, 1,972 isolates were collected in an epidemiological survey for extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in the Comunitat Valenciana (Spain). Three carbapenem-resistant strains failed to be detected by carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) screening tests. These isolates carried a blaNDM-23 gene. To characterize this gene, its emergence, and its dissemination, we performed antimicrobial susceptibility tests, hybrid sequencing with Illumina and Nanopore technologies, and phylogenetic analyses. The MICs of the blaNDM-23 allele were identical to those of the blaNDM-1 allele. The blaNDM-23 allele was found in 14 isolates on a 97-kb nonmobilizable, multidrug-resistant plasmid carrying 19 resistance genes for 9 different antimicrobial families. In this plasmid, the blaNDM-23 gene is in the variable region of a complex class 1 integron with a singular genetic environment. The small genetic distance between blaNDM-23-producing isolates reflects a 5-year-long clonal dispersion involving several hospitals and interregional spread. We have characterized the genomic and epidemiological contexts in the emergence and community spread of a new blaNDM-23 allele in a multidrug resistance (MDR) plasmid of Klebsiella pneumoniae.
[Importance] At a time when antimicrobial resistance has become one of the biggest concerns worldwide, the emergence of novel alleles and extremely drug-resistant plasmids is a threat to public health worldwide, especially when they produce carbapenem resistance in one of the most problematic pathogens, such as Klebsiella pneumoniae. We used genomic epidemiology to describe the emergence of a novel NDM-23 allele and identify it in a MDR plasmid that has disseminated through a K. pneumoniae ST437 clone in several hospitals in Spain. Using bioinformatic and phylogenetic analyses, we have traced the evolutionary and epidemiological route of the new allele, the hosting plasmid, and the strain that carried both of them from Pakistan to Spain. A better understanding of the NDM-producing K. pneumoniae populations and plasmids has made evident the spread of this clone through the region, enhancing the importance of genomic surveillance in the control of antimicrobial resistance.
DescriptionOn behalf of the Networked Laboratory for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance of Comunitat Valenciana (Spain).
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