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Groundwater quality assessment for sustainable human consumption in arid areas based on GIS and water quality index in the watershed of Ain Sefra (SW of Algeria)

AuthorsAbdessamed, Derdour; Antonio, Jódar Abellán; Ghoneim, Sherif S. M.; Almaliki, Abdulrazak; Hussein, Enas E.; Pardo, Miguel Ángel
Gibbs diagram
Piper diagram
Ain Sefra
Issue Date4-Oct-2023
PublisherSpringer Nature
CitationEnvironmental earth sciences 82: 510 (2023)
AbstractGroundwater quality in arid areas is an issue that requires attention, as often the only source of irrigation and drinking. In this manuscript, a research area of 4590.2 Km 2 , which depicts important problems of water scarcity and water-poor quality in an arid environment, was assessed. Therefore, GIS-based mapping of the region was carried out to examine the adequacy of groundwater quality. Forty-three (43) groundwater samples were gathered in the fieldwork in March 2022, and various physicochemical limits were analysed within Gibbs and Piper diagrams. Likewise, spatial distribution maps of twelve (12) main water quality parameters were performed using the Inverse Distance Weighted interpolation method (IDW) in the ArcGIS tool. The Water Quality Index (WQI) has been calculated considering Algerian drinking water quality standards and to know the suitability of water for human consumption. A Pearson’s test was carried out to explore the correlations among the different variables. Major results of the study showed that, among anions and cations, sulphates ( SO−2 4 ) and calcium (Ca) were the most common ions. The WQI showed that 30.23% of the samples have excellent water quality, 62.79% belong to the good water category, and 6.97% fall into the poor water quality category. Thus, the correlation study between many physicochemical properties also showed significant positive relationships between WQI, TDS, EC, TH, SO−2 4 , Ca++ , and Mg++. In agreement with the Gibbs diagram, most of the samples fall into the field of rock-water interaction dominance. Hence, this research shows that using GIS and WQI as joint approaches could be useful tools for the decision-making process of local and international authorities and water resources management
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