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In silico RNAseq and biochemical analyses of Glucose-6-Phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) from sweet pepper fruits: involvement of nitric Oxide (NO) in ripening and modulation

AuthorsMuñoz-Vargas, María A. CSIC ORCID; González-Gordo, Salvador CSIC ORCID; Taboada, Jorge CSIC ORCID; Palma Martínez, José Manuel CSIC ORCID; Corpas, Francisco J. CSIC ORCID
KeywordsEnzyme activity
Fruit ripening
Hydrogen sulfide
Molecular modeling
NADP dehydrogenases
Pentose phosphate pathway
Issue Date2023
PublisherMultidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
CitationPlants 12 (2023)
AbstractPepper (Capsicum annuum L.) fruit is a horticultural product consumed worldwide which has great nutritional and economic relevance. Besides the phenotypical changes that pepper fruit undergo during ripening, there are many associated modifications at transcriptomic, proteomic, biochemical, and metabolic levels. Nitric oxide (NO) is a recognized signal molecule that can exert regulatory functions in diverse plant processes including fruit ripening, but the relevance of NADPH as a fingerprinting of the crop physiology including ripening has also been proposed. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) is the first and rate-limiting enzyme of the oxidative phase of the pentose phosphate pathway (oxiPPP) with the capacity to generate NADPH. Thus far, the available information on G6PDH and other NADPH-generating enzymatic systems in pepper plants, and their expression during the ripening of sweet pepper fruit, is very scarce. Therefore, an analysis at the transcriptomic, molecular and functional levels of the G6PDH system has been accomplished in this work for the first time. Based on a data-mining approach to the pepper genome and fruit transcriptome (RNA-seq), four G6PDH genes were identified in pepper plants and designated CaG6PDH1 to CaG6PDH4, with all of them also being expressed in fruits. While CaG6PDH1 encodes a cytosolic isozyme, the other genes code for plastid isozymes. The time-course expression analysis of these CaG6PDH genes during different fruit ripening stages, including green immature (G), breaking point (BP), and red ripe (R), showed that they were differentially modulated. Thus, while CaG6PDH2 and CaG6PDH4 were upregulated at ripening, CaG6PDH1 was downregulated, and CaG6PDH3 was slightly affected. Exogenous treatment of fruits with NO gas triggered the downregulation of CaG6PDH2, whereas the other genes were positively regulated. In-gel analysis using non-denaturing PAGE of a 50–75% ammonium-sulfate-enriched protein fraction from pepper fruits allowed for identifying two isozymes designated CaG6PDH I and CaG6PDH II, according to their electrophoretic mobility. In order to test the potential modulation of such pepper G6PDH isozymes, in vitro analyses of green pepper fruit samples in the presence of different compounds including NO donors (S-nitrosoglutathione and nitrosocysteine), peroxynitrite (ONOO), a hydrogen sulfide (HS) donor (NaHS, sodium hydrosulfide), and reducing agents such as reduced glutathione (GSH) and L-cysteine (L-Cys) were assayed. While peroxynitrite and the reducing compounds provoked a partial inhibition of one or both isoenzymes, NaHS exerted 100% inhibition of the two CaG6PDHs. Taken together these data provide the first data on the modulation of CaG6PDHs at gene and activity levels which occur in pepper fruit during ripening and after NO post-harvest treatment. As a consequence, this phenomenon may influence the NADPH availability for the redox homeostasis of the fruit and balance its active nitro-oxidative metabolism throughout the ripening process.
Publisher version (URL)
Identifiersdoi: 10.3390/plants12193408
issn: 2223-7747
Appears in Collections:(EEZ) Artículos

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