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Chemistry of Hydrogen Sulfide—Pathological and Physiological Functions in Mammalian Cells

AuthorsCurieses Andrés, Celia María; Pérez de Lastra, José Manuel CSIC ORCID ; Andrés Juan, Celia; Plou Gasca, Francisco José CSIC ORCID ; Pérez-Lebeña, Eduardo
KeywordsHydrogen sulfide
Issue Date1-Dec-2023
PublisherMultidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
CitationCells 12(23): 2684 (2023)
AbstractHydrogen sulfide (H2S) was recognized as a gaseous signaling molecule, similar to nitric oxide (-NO) and carbon monoxide (CO). The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the formation of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in the human body. H2S is synthesized by enzymatic processes involving cysteine and several enzymes, including cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS), cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE), cysteine aminotransferase (CAT), 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3MST) and D-amino acid oxidase (DAO). The physiological and pathological effects of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) on various systems in the human body have led to extensive research efforts to develop appropriate methods to deliver H2S under conditions that mimic physiological settings and respond to various stimuli. These functions span a wide spectrum, ranging from effects on the endocrine system and cellular lifespan to protection of liver and kidney function. The exact physiological and hazardous thresholds of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in the human body are currently not well understood and need to be researched in depth. This article provides an overview of the physiological significance of H2S in the human body. It highlights the various sources of H2S production in different situations and examines existing techniques for detecting this gas.
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