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Environmentally sensitive paramagnetic and diamagnetic contrast agents for nuclear magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy

AuthorsPacheco-Torres, Jesús; Calle, Daniel CSIC ORCID; Lizarbe, Blanca CSIC ORCID CVN; Negri, Viviana CSIC ORCID; Ubide, Carmen; Fayos, Rosa CSIC; López-Larrubia, Pilar CSIC ORCID; Ballesteros, Paloma ORCID; Cerdán, Sebastián CSIC ORCID
KeywordsSaturation-transfer cest
MRI contrast
Fluorinated 2-nitroimidazole
Tumor hypoxia
Acetamide sr-4554
Issue DateJan-2011
PublisherBentham Science Publishers
CitationCurrent Topics in Medicinal Chemistry 11(1): 115-130 (2011)
AbstractEven though alterations in the microenvironmental properties of tissues underlie the development of the most prevalent and morbid pathologies, they are not directly observable in vivo by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) or Spectroscopy (MRS) methods. This circumstance has lead to the development of a wide variety of exogenous paramagnetic and diamagnetic MRI and MRS probes able to inform non invasively on microenvironmental variables such as pH, pO(2), ion concentration o even temperature. This review covers the fundamentals of environmental contrast and the current arsenal of endogenous and exogenous MRI and MRS contrast enhancing agents available to visualize it. We begin describing the physicochemical background necessary to understand paramagnetic and diamagnetic contrast enhancement with a special reference to novel magnetization transfer and C-13 hiperpolarization strategies. We describe then the main macrocyclic structures used to support the environmentally sensitive paramagnetic sensors, including CEST and PARACEST pH sensitive probes, temperature probes and enzyme activity or gene expression activatable probes. Finally we address the most commonly used diamagnetic contrast agents including imidazolic derivatives to reveal extracellular pH and tissue pO(2) values by MRS. The potential applications of these agents in mutimodal and molecular imaging approaches are discussed.
Publisher version (URL)http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/156802611793611904
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