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The Pleistocene Gomphotheres (Proboscidea) from South America: Diversity, Habitats and Feeding Ecology

AuthorsPrado, José Luis; Alberdi, María Teresa ; Azanza, Beatriz; Sánchez Chillón, Begoña ; Frassinetti, D.
Early-middle Pleistocene
Cuvieronius hyodon
Issue DateOct-2001
PublisherConsiglio nazionale delle ricerche (Italia)
CitationThe World of Elephants - Proceedings of the 1st International Congress, pp. 337–340
AbstractGomphotheres were recorded in South America from the early-middle Pleistocene (Ensenadan Land-mammal Age) to the late Pleistocene (Lujanian Land-mammal Age). They arrived in South America during the “Great American Biotic Interchange”. Only two genera are recognised: Cuvieronius, which has only one species, Cuvieronius hyodon; and Stegomastodon, which has two species, Stegomastodon waringi and Stegomastodon platensis. The small Cuvieronius utilised the Andean corridor and it was almost exclusively mixed-feeder. The large Stegomastodon dispersed through the east route and the coastal area, where Stegomastodon waringi shows an adaptive trend from mixed-feeder to grazer, and Stegomastodon platensis shows a trend from mixed to browser feeding. Cuvieronius seems to have been adapted to a temperate-cold climate conditions, while Stegomastodon seems to have predominated in lower latitudes, and was better adapted to warm or temperate climatic conditions.
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