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Novel Aspects on the Preparation of Spirocyclic and Fused Unusual β-Lactams

AuthorsAlcaide, Benito CSIC ORCID; Almendros, Pedro CSIC ORCID ; Almendros, Pedro CSIC ORCID
Issue Date2010
SeriesTopics in Heterocyclic Chemistry
Abstractβ-Lactam antibiotics have occupied a central role in the fight against pathogenic bacteria and the subsequent rise in quality of life for the world population as a whole. However, the extensive use of common β-lactam antibiotics such as penicillins and cephalosporins in medicine has resulted in an increasing number of resistant strains of bacteria through mutation and β-lactamase gene transfer. The resistance of bacteria to the classical β-lactam antibiotics can be overcome, e.g., by using novel β-lactam moieties in drugs which show much higher stability towards these resistance bacteria. In addition, there are many important nonantibiotic uses of 2-azetidinones in fields ranging from enzyme inhibition to gene activation. These biological activities, combined with the use of these products as starting materials to prepare α- and β-amino acids, alkaloids, heterocycles, taxoids, and other types of compounds of biological and medicinal interest, provide the motivation to explore new methodologies for the synthesis of substances based on the β-lactam core. The aim of this chapter is to provide a survey of the types of reactions used to prepare non-conventional spirocyclic and fused β-lactams, concentrating on the advances that have been made in the last decade, and in particular in the last five years. We will draw special attention to radical cyclizations, cycloaddition reactions, and transition metal-catalyzed reactions.
DescriptionCapítulo 1, pp 1-48
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Appears in Collections:(IQOG) Libros y partes de libros

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