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Energy needs for residential heating in Madrid by census precint

AuthorsMartín-Consuegra, Fernando CSIC ORCID ; Frutos, Fernando de
KeywordsUrban data science
Building energy efficiency
Energy equity
Neighbourhood renovation
Envelope retrofit
Issue Date24-Nov-2021
CitationMartín-Consuegra, Fernando; Frutos, Fernando de; 2021; Energy needs for residential heating in Madrid by census precint [dataset]; DIGITAL.CSIC;
AbstractThe work presented here is part of the results of the thesis “Análisis de datos espaciales para la erradicación de la pobreza energética en la rehabilitación urbana: el caso de Madrid” (Spatial data analysis for the eradication of fuel poverty in urban retrofitting: the case of Madrid) (Martín-Consuegra Ávila, 2019). It proposes the conceptual development of a Spatial Data Analysis Model that can collect large amounts of information about the energy efficiency of the residential building stock. The model contains information from different databases at various scales, in order to assess the refurbishment needs of entire neighbourhoods. It gives the possibility of planning rehabilitation strategies based on energy needs reduction, taking into account the different environmental, social and economic aspects involved in the process. Two complementary tools are proposed for the data processing of the main existing bases in Spain: the cadastre and the census. These tools generate energy indicators that are used to characterize the thermal performance of buildings, neighbourhoods and cities.
Description[Methodology applied] This dataset is based on robust statistical data mainly from the Spanish Census (INE, 2001, 2011). An estimation of heating energy needs is carried out for urban areas by performing archetype building simulation models. Urban energy needs data are obtained by the generalisation of the results of these simulations by using statistical data (Mata et al., 2014). This process makes it possible to identify urban areas containing pockets of inefficient buildings. This dataset contains spatial data representing the total energy required to maintain all the dwellings contained in each of the census precincts of Madrid within the comfort ranges defined by the Spanish Technical Building Code throughout the winter (CTE-DB-HE, 2019). The result is the visualisation of the energy dispersed by the city of Madrid to the environment during the winter. It is also a useful information for sizing supplies.
[Indicator 1] energy for heating required per Hectare (kWh/Ha)]: From the heating energy demand data estimated for each census section, an indicator of energy required per Hectare (kWh/Ha) is prepared, which enables the areas with the highest energy demand density to be located geographically. This indicator is influenced by the density of dwellings and their surface area in each neighbourhood, and by the construction period of the buildings in which they are located, a variable that determines the energy quality of the enclosures. The focus of this work is mainly on heating energy demand, which accounts for 55% of the energy consumption of households in the continental Mediterranean area (IDAE, 2011a), in which the city of Madrid is located. The full detailed methodology can be found in: (Martín-Consuegra, F. et al., 2016)
[Indicator 2: Energy class by census precinct] It represents the average thermal quality of the dwellings contained in a census precinct in terms of their heating energy demand. To calculate this value, the total heating demand values obtained for each census tract are multiplied by the living area of the dwellings it contains. In this way, an average value of the energy demand indicator per unit of living area is obtained for each census section (kWh/m²). The values obtained are represented according to the classification proposed by the energy rating procedure established for existing residential buildings for the rating of heating demand (IDAE, 2011b). Building data from the 2001 census and for newly developed areas from the 2011 census have been used. The full detailed methodology can be found in: (Martín-Consuegra, 2014).
[File formats, file structure and file nomenclature] The information is prepared by means of a Geographic Information System. It consists of a spatial information file with vectorial information of the census sections of Madrid and a database with the values of the energy variables for each one of them. The list of files is as follows: *.qml files contain visualisation information for the two main variables The variables containing information for each census precinct are listed as following: VARIABLE DESCRIPTION UD: principales, Number of main dwellings, uds; suptotal, Total living area of dwelling, m2; demtotal, Total heating demand by census precinct, kWh; demindic, Heating energy rating of the census tract, kWh/m2; area_sscc, Census tract area, Ha; dempha, Heating energy Demand per hectare, kWh/Ha.
[Legal aspects, access and security policies] Free access for research purposes
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