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Title

Redox regulation of chloroplast metabolism

AuthorsCejudo, Francisco Javier ; González, Maricruz CSIC ORCID ; Pérez-Ruiz, Juan Manuel CSIC
Issue Date2021
PublisherOxford University Press
CitationPlant Physiology, 186: 9-21 (2021)
AbstractRegulation of enzyme activity based on thiol-disulfide exchange is a regulatory mechanism in which the protein disulfide reductase activity of thioredoxins (TRXs) plays a central role. Plant chloroplasts are equipped with a complex set of up to 20 TRXs and TRX-like proteins, the activity of which is supported by reducing power provided by photosynthetically reduced ferredoxin (FDX) with the participation of a FDX-dependent TRX reductase (FTR). Therefore, the FDX–FTR–TRXs pathway allows the regulation of redox-sensitive chloroplast enzymes in response to light. In addition, chloroplasts contain an NADPH-dependent redox system, termed NTRC, which allows the use of NADPH in the redox network of these organelles. Genetic approaches using mutants of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) in combination with biochemical and physiological studies have shown that both redox systems, NTRC and FDX-FTR-TRXs, participate in fine-tuning chloroplast performance in response to changes in light intensity. Moreover, these studies revealed the participation of 2-Cys peroxiredoxin (2-Cys PRX), a thiol-dependent peroxidase, in the control of the reducing activity of chloroplast TRXs as well as in the rapid oxidation of stromal enzymes upon darkness. In this review, we provide an update on recent findings regarding the redox regulatory network of plant chloroplasts, focusing on the functional relationship of 2-Cys PRXs with NTRC and the FDX–FTR–TRXs redox systems for fine-tuning chloroplast performance in response to changes in light intensity and darkness. Finally, we consider redox regulation as an additional layer of control of the signaling function of the chloroplast.
Publisher version (URL)https://doi.org/10.1093/plphys/kiaa062
URIhttp://hdl.handle.net/10261/244094
DOI10.1093/plphys/kiaa062
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