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Negative predictive value of the repeated absence of gluten immunogenic peptides in the urine of treated celiac patients in predicting mucosal healing: New proposals for follow-up in celiac disease

AuthorsRuiz-Carnicer, Ángela; Garzón-Benavides, Marta CSIC ORCID; Fombuena, Blanca CSIC; Segura, Verónica; García-Hernández, Francisco José CSIC ORCID; Sobrino-Rodríguez, Salvador; Gómez Izquierdo, Lourdes; Montes-Cano, Marco-Antonio CSIC; Rodríguez-Herrera, Alfonso; Millán Domínguez, Raquel CSIC; Rico, María Carmen CSIC; González-Naranjo, Carmen; Bozada-García, Juan M.; Díaz, Jacobo; Coronel Rodríguez, Cristóbal; Espín, Beatriz; Romero-Gómez, Manuel CSIC ORCID CVN; Cebolla, Ángel; Sousa, Carolina; Comino, Isabel; Argüelles Arias, Federico; Pizarro, Ángeles CSIC
KeywordsCeliac disease
Gluten-free diet
Urine gluten immunogenic peptides
Histological lesions
Intestinal mucosal damage
Dietary adherence
Gluten exposure
Duodenal biopsies
Issue DateNov-2020
PublisherAmerican Society for Nutrition
Oxford University Press
CitationAmerican Journal of Clinical Nutrition 112(5): 1240-1251 (2020)
Abstract[Background]: The treatment of celiac disease (CD) is a lifelong gluten-free diet (GFD). The current methods for monitoring GFD conformance, such as a dietary questionnaire or serology tests, may be inaccurate in detecting dietary transgressions, and duodenal biopsies are invasive, expensive, and not a routine monitoring technique.
[Objectives]: Our aim was to determine the clinical usefulness of urine gluten immunogenic peptides (GIP) as a biomarker monitoring GFD adherence in celiac patients and to evaluate the concordance of the results with the degree of mucosal damage.
[Methods]: A prospective observational study was conducted involving 22 de novo CD patients, 77 celiac patients consuming a GFD, and 13 nonceliac subjects. On 3 d of the week, urine samples were collected and the GIP concentrations were tested. Simultaneously, anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies, questionnaire results, clinical manifestations, and histological findings were analyzed.
[Results]: Approximately 24% (18 of 76) of the celiac patients consuming a GFD exhibited Marsh II–III mucosal damage. Among this population, 94% (17 of 18) had detectable urine GIP; however, between 60% and 80% were asymptomatic and exhibited negative serology and appropriate GFD adherence based on the questionnaire. In contrast, 97% (31 of 32) of the celiac patients without duodenal damage had no detectable GIP. These results demonstrated the high sensitivity (94%) and negative predictive value (97%) of GIP measurements in relation to duodenal biopsy findings. In the de novo CD-diagnosed cohort, 82% (18 of 22) of patients had measurable amounts of GIP in the urine.
[Conclusions]: Determining GIP concentrations in several urine samples may be an especially convenient approach to assess recent gluten exposure in celiac patients and appears to accurately predict the absence of histological lesions. The introduction of GIP testing as an assessment technique for GFD adherence may help in ascertaining dietary compliance and to target the most suitable intervention during follow-up.
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